商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|INFS6016

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statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写商业建模Business Modeling方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写商业建模Business Modeling代写方面经验极为丰富,各种代写商业建模Business Modeling相关的作业也就用不着说。

我们提供的商业建模Business Modeling及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|INFS6016

商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Build in Error Checks

Even if you’ve only just started modeling, you’re probably well aware how easy it is to make a mistake in a financial model! There are three ways to prevent errors in a financial model:

Avoid making the mistake in the first place. In this book, I describe several techniques that you can employ to avoid making mistakes in the first place, such as being consistent with your formulas.
$\boldsymbol{\gg}$ Check the model for errors. Despite your best efforts, errors will almost inevitably slip through, so check, double-check, and have someone else check your model after it’s complete.
Include error checks. As you’re building the model, include error checks that prevent inadvertent errors from slipping into the model due to incorrect entries, calculations, or user error.
For more examples of different types of commonly made mistakes, and some ways to avoid making these errors in your models, see Chapter 13. This section focuses on the first two points: techniques for model building to reduce error, as well as ways to check the model for errors.

Error checks are a critical part of a well-built financial model so that the user or modeler can see at a glance if the formulas are calculating correctly. For example, when creating management reports, check that the sum of each individual department’s report adds to the company-wide total. This can be done by inserting a simple IF function, among other methods.

In the example shown in Figure 4-10, a capital budget has been built with estimated spend dates in column E. In the capital spend schedule shown in columns F through $\mathrm{K}$, the spend gets spread out over the six-month period that has been modeled. The modeler knows that the total capital spend amount of $\$ 124,700$ shown in cell D17 should be the same as the total capital schedule amount shown in cell L17, and if the two amounts do not equal each other, then the model is not calculating properly. So the error-checking cell E1 contains the very simple formula =L17-D17. However, as I explain later in this section, that isn’t actually the best way to check.

商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Allowing tolerance for error

$=\mathrm{IF}(\mathrm{D} 17 \prec>\mathrm{R} 17$, “error”, 0$)$ is a superior error check, but every now and then it can return a false error result, even though the values appear to be the same. (See Chapter 7 for how to use an IF statement in a formula like this.) This “bug” is caused by the fact that Excel carries calculations to 14 decimal places. After that, Excel truncates the value, which can cause minute discrepancies, which will cause the formula to report an error when the difference is as small as $0.00000000000001$ off. To avoid the potential for false error checks, use one of the following methods:
s) Test the absolute value of the difference against a nonzero tolerance. For instance $=\operatorname{IF}(\operatorname{ABS}(\mathrm{D} 17-\mathrm{R} 17)>1$, “error”, 0 ) will allow the values to differ by 1 before reporting an error. You should use Excel’s ABS function, which will take the absolute value of the result, so it doesn’t matter if it’s a positive or negative difference.

) Test whether the rounded value of the difference is nonzero using a formula such as $=\operatorname{IF}(\operatorname{ROUND}(\mathrm{D} 17-\mathrm{R} 17,0)=0,0$, “error” $)$ instead.
There are many variations of this formula. Some modelers prefer to show the word $O K$ if the numbers are right, and Check if they aren’t.

商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Applying conditional formatting to an error check

To make the error check even more prominent to the user, consider using conditional formatting that makes the cell have a red highlight if the error check has been triggered. On the Home tab of the Ribbon, in the Styles group, click the Conditional Formatting button. Then hover the mouse over Highlight Cells Rule and select Equal To (see Figure 4-12).

When the Equal To dialog box appears, as shown in Figure $4-13$, type the word error into the Format Cells That Are Equal To box and click OK. By default, it will turn the cell to Light Red Fill with Dark Red Text, but you can change this in the drop-down box.

Be careful. If you just change your error check formula to return a different alert, such as “Err” or “Check,” the conditional formatting rule won’t be triggered. You’ll also need to change the conditional formatting rule to check for the new word.

Conditional formatting is commonly applied in error checks because it makes the error check more prominent when it’s triggered. This obviously makes it more likely the user will realize there is an error in the financial model and solve it before using the model’s outputs. However, conditional formatting isn’t limited to error checks – it can be useful whenever you want to draw a user’s attention such as to the highest and/or lowest values in a range or some unusual result in a set of calculations.

商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|INFS6016


商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Build in Error Checks


有关不同类型的常见错误的更多示例,以及在模型中避免这些错误的一些方法,请参阅第 13 章。本节重点关注前两点:减少错误的模型构建技术,以及检查方法错误的模型。

错误检查是构建良好的财务模型的关键部分,因此用户或建模者可以一目了然地看到公式计算是否正确。例如,在创建管理报告时,检查每个部门报告的总和是否添加到公司范围的总数中。这可以通过插入一个简单的 IF 函数以及其他方法来完成。

在图 4-10 所示的示例中,已在 E 列中使用估计的支出日期建立了资本预算。在 F 到列中显示的资本支出计划中ķ,支出在已建模的 6 个月期间内展开。建模者知道总资本支出金额为$124,700单元格 D17 中显示的总资本计划金额应与单元格 L17 中显示的总资本计划金额相同,如果这两个金额不相等,则模型计算不正确。因此错误检查单元格 E1 包含非常简单的公式 =L17-D17。但是,正如我在本节后面解释的那样,这实际上并不是最好的检查方法。

商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Allowing tolerance for error

=我F(D17≺>R17, “错误”, 0)是一种高级错误检查,但它有时会返回错误的错误结果,即使值看起来相同。(有关如何在这样的公式中使用 IF 语句,请参阅第 7 章。)这个“错误”是由于 Excel 将计算保留到小数点后 14 位造成的。之后,Excel会截断值,这会导致微小的差异,这会导致公式在差异很小时报错0.00000000000001离开。为避免错误检查的可能性,请使用以下方法之一:
s) 根据非零容差测试差异的绝对值。例如=如果⁡(ABS⁡(D17−R17)>1, “error”, 0 ) 将允许值在报告错误之前相差 1。您应该使用 Excel 的 ABS 函数,该函数将获取结果的绝对值,因此无论是正差还是负差都没有关系。

) 使用公式测试差异的舍入值是否非零=如果⁡(圆形的⁡(D17−R17,0)=0,0, “错误”)反而。

商科代写|商业建模代写Business Modeling代考|Applying conditional formatting to an error check

要使错误检查对用户更加突出,请考虑使用条件格式,如果已触发错误检查,则使单元格具有红色突出显示。在功能区的主页选项卡上,在样式组中,单击条件格式按钮。然后将鼠标悬停在 Highlight Cells Rule 上并选择 Equal To(见图 4-12)。




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术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。



有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。





随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。


多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。


MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。