### 数学代写|信息论作业代写information theory代考|MTHE474

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写信息论information theory方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写信息论information theory代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写信息论information theory相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|信息论作业代写information theory代考|The mystery of fossils

During the lifetime of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) the existence of fossil shells in the rocks of high mountain ranges was recognized and discussed. “…the shells in Lombardy are at four levels”, Leonardo wrote, “and thus it is everywhere, having been made at various times… The stratified stones of the mountains are all layers of clay, deposited one above the other by the various floods of the rivers.” Leonardo had no patience with the explanation given by some of his contemporaries, that the shells had been carried to mountain tops by the deluge described in the Bible. “If the shells had been carried by the muddy waters of the deluge”, he wrote, “they would have been mixed up, and separated from each other amidst the mud, and not in regular steps and layers.” Nor did Leonardo agree with the opinion that the shells somehow grew within the rocks: “Such an opinion cannot exist in a brain of much reason”, he wrote, “because here are the years of their growth, numbered on their shells, and there are large and small ones to be seen, which could not have grown without food, and could not have fed without motion…and here they could not move.”

Leonardo believed that the fossil shells were once part of living organisms, that they were buried in strata under water, and much later lifted to the tops of mountains by geological upheavals. However his acute observations had little influence on the opinions of his contemporaries because they appear among the 4,000 or so pages of notes which he wrote for himself but never published.

It was left to the Danish scientist Niels Stensen (1638-1686) (usually known by his Latinized name, Steno) to independently rediscover and popularize the correct interpretation of fossils and of rock strata. Steno, who had studied medicine at the University of Leiden, was working in Florence, where his anatomical studies attracted the attention of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdenand II. When an enormous shark was caught by local fishermen, the Duke ordered that its head be brought to Steno for dissection. The Danish anatomist was struck by shape of the shark’s teeth, which reminded him of certain curiously shaped stones called glossopetrae that were sometimes found embedded in larger rocks. Steno concluded that the similarity of form was not just a coincidence, and that the glossopetrae were in fact the teeth of once-living sharks which had become embedded in the muddy sediments at the bottom of the sea and gradually changed to stone. Steno used the corpuscular theory of matter, a forerunner of atomic theory, to explain how the composition of the fossils could have changed while their form remained constant. Steno also formulated a law of strata, which states that in the deposition of layers of sediment, later converted to rock, the oldest layers are at the bottom.

## 数学代写|信息论作业代写information theory代考|Linnaeus

Meanwhile, during the 17 th and 18 th centuries, naturalists had been gathering information on thousands of species of plants and animals. This huge, undigested heap of information was put into some order by the great Swedish naturalist, Carl von Linné $(1707-1778)$, who is usually called by his Latin name, Carolus Linnaeus.

Linnaeus was the son of a Swedish pastor. Even as a young boy, he was fond of botany, and after medical studies at Lund, he became a lecturer in hotany at the Iniversity of ITprala, near Stockholm. In 1732 , the 25year-old Linnaeus was asked by his university to visit Lapland to study the plants in that remote northern region of Sweden.

Linnaeus travelled four thousand six hundred miles in Lapland, and he discovered more than a hundred new plant species. In 1735 , he published his famous book, Systema Naturae, in which he introduced a method for the classification of all living things.

Linnaeus not only arranged closely related species into genera, but he also grouped related genera into classes, and related classes into orders. (Later the French naturalist Cuvier (1769-1832) extended this system by grouping related orders into phyla.) Linnaeus introduced the binomial nomenclature, still used today, in which each plant or animal is given a name whose second part denotes the species while the first part denotes the genus.

Although he started a line of study which led inevitably to the theory of evolution, Linnaeus himself believed that species are immutable. He adhered to the then-conventional view that each species had been independently and miraculously created six thousand years ago, as described in the Book of Genesis.

Linnaeus did not attempt to explain why the different species within a genus resemble each other, nor why certain genera are related and can be grouped into classes, etc. It was not until a century later that these resem= blances were understood as true family likenesses, so that the resemblance between a cat and a lion came to be understood in terms of their descent from a common ancestor. ${ }^{4}$

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。