### 数学代写|编码理论代写Coding theory代考|COMP2610

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|编码理论代写Coding theory代考|REPETITION CODES AND SINGLE-PARITY-CHECK CODES

Suppose that we wish to transmit a sequence of binary digits across a noisy channel. If we send a one, a one will probably be rcecivcd; if we send a zero, a zero will probably be received. Occasionally, however, the channel noise will cause a transmitted one to be mistakenly interpreted as a zero or a transmitted zero to be mistakenly interpreted as a one. Although we are unable to prevent the channel from causing such errors, we can reduce their undesirable effects with the use of coding. The basic idea is simple. We take a set of $k$ message digits which we wish to transmit, annex to them $r$ check digits, and transmit the entire block of $n=k+r$ channel digits. Assuming that the channcl noise changes sufficiently few of these $n$ transmitted channel digits, the $r$ check digits may provide the receiver with sufficient information to enable him to detect and correct the channel errors.

Given any particular sequence of $k$ message digits, the transmitter must have some rule for selecting the $r$ check digits. This is called the encoding problem. Any particular scquence of $n$ digits which the encoder might transmit is called a codeword. Although there are $2^{n}$ different binary sequences of length $n$, only $2^{k}$ of these sequences are codewords, because the $r$ check digits within any codeword are completely determined by the $k$ message digits. The set consisting of these $2^{k}$ codewords of length $n$ is called the code.

No matter which codeword is transmitted, any of the $2^{\text {n }}$ possible binary sequences of length $n$ may be received if the channel is sufficiently noisy. Given the $n$ received digits, the decoder must attempt to decide which of the $2^{k}$ possible codewords was transmitted.

## 数学代写|编码理论代写Coding theory代考|LINEAR CODES

In a code containing several message digits and several check digits, each check digit must be some function of the message digits. In the simple case of single-parity-check codes, the single parity check was chosen to be the binary sum of all the message digits. If there are several parity checks, it is wise to set each check digit equal to the binary sum of some subset of the message digits. For example, we construct a binary code of block length $n=6$, having $k=3$ message digits and $r=3$ check digits. We shall label the three message digits $C_{1}, C_{2}$, and $C_{3}$ and the three check digits $C_{4}, C_{5}$, and $C_{6}$. We choose these check digits from the message digits according to the following rules:
$C_{4}=C_{1}+C_{2}$
$C_{5}=C_{1}+C_{3}$
$C_{6}=C_{2}+C_{3}$
or, in matrix notation,
$$\left[\begin{array}{l} C_{4} \ C_{5} \ C_{6} \end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{lll} 1 & 1 & 0 \ 1 & 0 & 1 \ 0 & 1 & 1 \end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{l} C_{1} \ C_{2} \ C_{3} \end{array}\right]$$
The full codcword coneists of the digits $C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3}, C_{4}, C_{8}, C_{6}$. Every codeword must satigfy the parity=eheck equations or, in matrix notation,
$$\left[\begin{array}{llllll} 1 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \ 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \ 0 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array}\right] \quad \mathbf{C}^{t}=\left[\begin{array}{l} 0 \ 0 \ 0 \end{array}\right]$$

## 数学代写|编码理论代写Coding theory代考|HAMMING CODES

At extremely low rates or extremely high rates, it is relatively easy to find good linear codes. In order to interpolate between these two extremes, we might adopt either of two approaches: (1) start with the low-rate codes and gradually increase $k$ by adding more and more codewords, attempting to maintain a large error-correction capability, or (2) start with good high=rate codes and gradually increase the error= correction capability, attempting to add only a few additional paritycheck constraints.

Historically, the second approach has proved more successful.
† All of the perfect singlc-error-correcting binary group codes were first discovered by Hamming. The Hamming code of length 7 was first published as an example in the paper by Shannon (1948). The generalization of this example was mentioned by Golay (1949) prior to the appearance of the paper by Hamming (1950). The Hamming codes had been anticipated by Fisher (1942) in a different context.

This is the approach we shall follow. We begin by constructing certain codes to correct single errors, the Hamming codes.

The syndrome of a linear code is related to the error pattern by the equation $\mathbf{s}^{t}=\tilde{F} E^{t}$. In general, the right side of this equation may be written as $E_{1}$ times the first column of the $F C$ matrix, plus $E_{2}$ times the second column of the $F C$ matrix, plus $E_{3}$ times the third column of the FC matrix, plus …. For example, if
$$\mathbf{s}^{t}=\left[\begin{array}{cccccc} 1 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \ 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 & 1 & 0 \ 0 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array}\right]\left[E_{1}, E_{2}, E_{3}, E_{4}, E_{5}, E_{6}\right]^{t}$$
then
$$\left[\begin{array}{l} s_{1} \ s_{2} \ s_{3} \end{array}\right]=E_{1}\left[\begin{array}{l} 1 \ 1 \ 0 \end{array}\right]+E_{2}\left[\begin{array}{l} 1 \ 0 \ 1 \end{array}\right]+E_{3}\left[\begin{array}{l} 0 \ 1 \ 1 \end{array}\right]+E_{4}\left[\begin{array}{l} 1 \ 0 \ 0 \end{array}\right]+E_{5}\left[\begin{array}{l} 0 \ 1 \ 0 \end{array}\right]+E_{6}\left[\begin{array}{l} 0 \ 0 \ 1 \end{array}\right]$$

## 数学代写|编码理论代写Coding theory代考|LINEAR CODES

C4=C1+C2
C5=C1+C3
C6=C2+C3

[C4 C5 C6]=[110 101 011][C1 C2 C3]

[110100 101010 011001]C吨=[0 0 0]

## 数学代写|编码理论代写Coding theory代考|HAMMING CODES

† 所有完美的单次纠错二进制群码都是由 Hamming 首次发现的。长度为 7 的汉明码首先在 Shannon (1948) 的论文中作为示例发表。在 Hamming (1950) 的论文出现之前，Golay (1949) 已经提到了这个例子的推广。Fisher (1942) 在不同的背景下已经预料到了汉明码。

s吨=[110100 101010 011001][和1,和2,和3,和4,和5,和6]吨

[s1 s2 s3]=和1[1 1 0]+和2[1 0 1]+和3[0 1 1]+和4[1 0 0]+和5[0 1 0]+和6[0 0 1]

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## MATLAB代写

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