### 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|The Research Process

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|Panel or Longitudinal Data

Econometrics is ultimately a research tool. Students of econometrics plan to do research or they plan to read and evaluate the research of others, or both. This section provides a frame of reference and guide for future work. In particular, we show you the role of econometrics in research.
Research is a process, and like many such activities, it flows according to an orderly pattern. Research is an adventure, and can be fun’ Searching for an answer to your question, seeking new knowledge, is very addictive-for the more you seek, the more new questions you will find.
A research project is an opportunity to investigate a topic that is important to you. Choosing a good research topic is essential if you are to complete a project successfully. A starting point is the question “What are my interests?” Interest in a particular topic will add pleasure to the

research effort. Also, if you begin working on a topic, other questions will usually occur to you. These new questions may put another light on the original topic or may represent new paths to follow that are even more interesting to you. The idea may come after lengthy study of all that has been written on a particular topic. You will find that “inspiration is $99 \%$ perspiration.” That means that after you dig at a topic long enough, a new and interesting question will occur to you. Alternatively, you may be led by your natural curiosity to an interesting question. Professor Hal $\operatorname{Varian}^{8}$ suggests that you look for ideas outside academic journals-in newspapers, magazines, etc. He relates a story about a research project that developed from his shopping for a new TV set.
By the time you have completed several semesters of economics classes, you will find yourself enjoying some areas more than others. For each of us, specialized areas such as health economics, economic development, industrial organization, public tinance, resource economics, monetary economics, environmental economics, and international trade hold a different appeal. If you find an area or topic in which you are interested, consult the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) for a list of related journal articles. The JEL has a classification scheme that makes isolating particular areas of study an easy task. Alternatively, type a few descriptive words into your favorite search engine and see what pops up.

Once you have focused on a particular idea, begin the research process, which generally follows steps like these:

1. Economic theory gives us a way of thinking about the problem. Which economic variables are involved, and what is the possible direction of the relationship(s)? Every research project, given the initial question, begins by building an economic model and listing the questions (hypotheses) of interest. More questions will arise during the research project, but it is good to list those that motivate you at the project’s beginning.
2. The working economic model leads to an econometric model. We must choose a functional form and make some assumptions about the nature of the error term.

## 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|A Format for Writing a Research Report

Economic research reports have a standard format in which the various steps of the research project are discussed and the results interpreted. The following outline is typical.

1. Statement of the Problem The place to start your report is with a summary of the questions you wish to investigate as well as why they are important and who should be interested in the results. This introductory section should be nontechnical and should motivate the reader to continue reading the paper. It is also useful to map out the contents of the following sections of the report. This is the first section to work on and also the last. In today’s busy world, the reader’s attention must be garnered very quickly. A clear, concise, well-written introduction is a must and is arguably the most important part of the paper.
2. Review of the Literature Briefly summarize the relevant literature in the research area you have chosen and clarify how your work extends our knowledge. By all means, cite the works of others who have motivated your research, but keep it brief. You do not have to survey everything that has been written on the topic.
3. The Economic Model Specify the economic model that you used and define the economic variables. State the model’s assumptions and identify hypotheses that you wish to test. Economic models can get complicated. Your task is to explain the model clearly, but as briefly and simply as possible. Don’t use unnecessary technical jargon. Use simple terms instead of complicated ones when possible. Your objective is to display the quality of your thinking, not the extent of your vocabulary.
4. The Econometric Model Discuss the econometric model that corresponds to the economic model. Make sure you include a discussion of the variables in the model, the functional form, the error assumptions, and any other assumptions that you make. Use notation that is as simple as possible, and do not clutter the body of the paper with long proofs or derivations; these can go into a technical appendix.
5. The Data Describe the data you used, as well as the source of the data and any reservations you have about their appropriateness.
6. The Estimation and Inference Procedures Describe the estimation methods you used and why they were chosen. Explain hypothesis testing procedures and their usage. Indicate the software used and the version, such as Stata 15 or EViews $10 .$
7. The Empirical Results and Conclusions Report the parameter estimates, their interpretation, and the values of test statistics. Comment on their statistical significance, their relation to previous estimates, and their economic implications.
8. Possible Extensions and Limitations of the Study Your research will raise questions about the economic model, data, and estimation techniques. What future research is suggested by your findings, and how might you go about performing it?
9. Acknowledgments It is appropriate to recognize those who have commented on and contributed to your research. This may include your instructor, a librarian who helped you find data, or a fellow student who read and commented on your paper.
10. References An alphabetical list of the literature you cite in your study, as well as references to the data sources you used.

Once you’ve written the first draft, use your computer’s spell-check software to check for spelling errors. Have a friend read the paper, make suggestions for clarifying the prose, and check your logic and conclusions. Before you submit the paper, you should eliminate as many errors as possible. Your work should look good. Use a word processor, and be consistent with font sizes, section headings, style of footnotes, references, and so on. Often software developers provide templates for term papers and theses. A little searching for a good paper layout before beginning is a good idea. Typos, missing references, and incorrect formulas can spell doom for an otherwise excellent paper. Some do’s and don’ts are summarized nicely, and with good humor, by Deidre N. McClosky in Economical Writing, 2nd edition (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 1999).

## 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|Obtaining the Data

Finding a data source is not the same as obtaining the data. Although there are a great many easy-to-use websites, “easy-to-use” is a relative term. The data will come packaged in a variety of formats. It is also true that there are many, many variables at each of these websites. A primary challenge is identifying the specific variables that you want, and what exactly they measure. The following examples are illustrative.

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ${ }^{9}$ has a system called FRED (Federal Reserve Economic Data). Under “Categories” there are links to financial variables, population and labor variables, national accounts, and many others. Data on these variables can be downloaded in a number of formats. For reading the data, you may need specific knowledge of your statistical software. Accompanying Principles of Econometrics, Se, are computer manuals for Excel, EViews, Stata, SAS, R, and Gretl to aid this process. See the publisher website www.wiley.com/college/hill, or the book website at www.principlesofeconometrics.com for a description of these aids.

The CPS (www.census.gov/cps) has a tool called DataFerrett. This tool will help you find and download data series that are of particular interest to you. There are tutorials that guide you through the process. Variable descriptions, as well as the specific survey questions, are provided to aid in your selection. It is somewhat like an Internet shopping site. Desired series are “ticked” and added to a “Shopping Basket.” Once you have filled your basket, you download the data to use with specific software. Other Web-based data sources operate in this same manner. One example is the PSID. ${ }^{10}$ The Penn World Tables ${ }^{11}$ offer data downloads in both Excel and Stata formats.
You can expect to find massive amounts of readily available data at the various sites we have mentioned, but there is a learning curve. You should not expect to find, download, and process the data without considerable work effort. Being skilled with Excel and statistical software is a must if you plan to regularly use these data sources.

## 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|Panel or Longitudinal Data

1. 经济理论为我们提供了一种思考问题的方式。涉及哪些经济变量，关系的可能方向是什么？每个研究项目，给定最初的问题，首先建立一个经济模型并列出感兴趣的问题（假设）。在研究项目期间会出现更多问题，但最好在项目开始时列出那些激励你的问题。
2. 有效的经济模型导致了一个计量经济学模型。我们必须选择一种函数形式并对误差项的性质做出一些假设。

## 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|A Format for Writing a Research Report

1. 问题陈述 报告的起点是您希望调查的问题的摘要，以及它们为何重要以及谁应该对结果感兴趣。这个介绍性部分应该是非技术性的，应该激励读者继续阅读论文。绘制报告以下部分的内容也很有用。这是要处理的第一部分，也是最后一部分。在当今繁忙的世界中，必须非常迅速地吸引读者的注意力。一个清晰、简洁、写得很好的介绍是必须的，并且可以说是论文中最重要的部分。
2. 文献回顾 简要总结您选择的研究领域的相关文献，并阐明您的工作如何扩展我们的知识。一定要引用其他激励你研究的人的作品，但要简短。您不必调查有关该主题的所有内容。
3. 经济模型 指定您使用的经济模型并定义经济变量。陈述模型的假设并确定您希望检验的假设。经济模型可能会变得复杂。你的任务是清楚地解释模型，但要尽可能简短和简单。不要使用不必要的技术术语。尽可能使用简单的术语而不是复杂的术语。你的目标是展示你思考的质量，而不是你的词汇量。
4. 计量经济模型 讨论与经济模型相对应的计量经济模型。确保包括对模型中变量、函数形式、错误假设以及您所做的任何其他假设的讨论。使用尽可能简单的符号，不要用冗长的证明或推导弄乱论文的主体；这些可以进入技术附录。
5. 数据描述您使用的数据，以及数据的来源以及您对其适当性的任何保留。
6. 估计和推理程序 描述您使用的估计方法以及选择它们的原因。解释假设检验程序及其用法。注明使用的软件和版本，例如 Stata 15 或 EViews10.
7. 实证结果和结论报告参数估计、它们的解释和检验统计的值。评论它们的统计意义、它们与先前估计的关系以及它们的经济影响。
8. 研究的可能扩展和限制 您的研究将提出有关经济模型、数据和估计技术的问题。您的发现建议了哪些未来的研究，您将如何进行？
9. 致谢 表彰那些对您的研究发表评论并做出贡献的人是适当的。这可能包括您的讲师、帮助您查找数据的图书管理员或阅读并评论您的论文的同学。
10. 参考文献 您在研究中引用的文献按字母顺序排列的列表，以及对您使用的数据源的引用。

## 数学代写|计量经济学原理代写Principles of Econometrics代考|Obtaining the Data

CPS (www.census.gov/cps) 有一个名为 DataFerrett 的工具。该工具将帮助您查找和下载您特别感兴趣的数据系列。有指导您完成整个过程的教程。提供变量描述以及特定的调查问题以帮助您进行选择。它有点像一个互联网购物网站。所需的系列被“勾选”并添加到“购物篮”中。填满购物篮后，您可以下载数据以与特定软件一起使用。其他基于 Web 的数据源以同样的方式运行。一个例子是 PSID。10宾夕法尼亚大学世界表11提供 Excel 和 Stata 格式的数据下载。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。