### 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING IN THE DETECTION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写深度学习deep learning方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写深度学习deep learning代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写深度学习deep learning相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|DEEP LEARNING IN THE DETECTION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

A few years back, we would have never thought of deep learning applications to develop virtual assistants (like Alexa, Siri, and Google Assistant) and self-driving cars. But now, these developments are part of

our daily lives. Deep learning is fascinating to us with its ongoing actions, such as fraud detection and pixel restoration.

Although deep learning is achieving quite impressive results in realworld applications, it is essential to note that it is not magic to achieve those results; large amounts of data are required. Furthermore, learning from this amount of data is a very time-consuming and computationally demanding process.

Nevertheless, it is terrible how these algorithms can “learn” without telling the model what to look for – it learns based on experience and the examples given. And as mentioned, progress in this area has been made to develop surprising and valuable applications that we will discuss next.
Deep Learning is a very vast field to discuss and do research on. There are hundreds of applications present at the moment that use deep learning methods. Hundreds of fascinating applications will come in the future, like MIT is working on future prediction using deep learning methods.

Deep learning is widely used in the medical field-computer vision techniques like image segmentation, image classification, etc. Using different deep learning architectures (such as CNN, RNN, LSTM) can detect any disease from other image datasets. Deep learning helps medical experts diagnose disease more accurately with minimum error and allows them to treat it better, thus leading to better decisions.

This chapter will discuss eye disease, which can cause blindness known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Early detection of DR is a critical task, and deep learning helps in its early detection.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is a condition that occurs in the human body when the pancreas fails to produce the required insulin or when the body fails to process it properly. As it advances, it starts affecting the circulatory system of the human body, including the retina. It causes damage to the retinal blood vessels, leading to diabetic retinopathy by decreasing the

patient’s vision. This disease can cause permanent blindness to the affected person if appropriate treatment is not provided in the early stages.

The abnormal shift in blood sugar level starts happening in diabetes mellitus. Generally, glucose is converted into energy in the human body that helps to perform normal human functions. But in the worst-case scenario, there is an abnormal blood sugar level, and the excess blood sugar causes hyperglycemia. Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR) and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) are two main stages of DR, as shown in Figure 2. NPDR is a condition in which the retina becomes inflamed (a case of macular edema) because of the accumulation of glucose that leads to leakage of blood vessels in the eyes. In a severe condition, retinal vessels might get blocked completely, which causes macular ischemia. There are different levels in NPDR in which sometimes the patient suffers from blurred vision or loses sight partially or entirely. PDR occurs in the advanced stage of diabetes, in which extra blood vessels start growing in the retina (a case of neovascularization). These new blood vessels are very narrow and brittle, tend to cause haemorrhages, and lead to partial or complete loss of vision.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Severity Levels of DR

Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group (ETDRS) and International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy (ICDR) [12] has given different levels of severity of DR defined as under:

• Level 0- No retinopathy.
• Level 1- Mild NPDR- the presence of at least one microaneurysm with or without other lesions.
• Level 2- Moderate NPDR- the presence of many microaneurysms and retinal haemorrhages with or without cotton wool spots.
• Level 3- Severe $N P D R$ – the presence of many haemorrhages and micro-aneurysms in four quadrants of the retina, cotton wool spots in two or more quadrants and Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities in one or more quadrants.
• Level 4- PDR- it is an advanced stage of DR where new narrow and brittle or weak blood vessels are present with a high risk of leakage, and it can cause severe vision loss and sometimes even blindness. Figure 4 shows images of different levels of severity in DR.

## 机器学习代写|深度学习project代写deep learning代考|Severity Levels of DR

• 0 级 – 无视网膜病变。
• 1级-轻度NPDR-存在至少一个微动脉瘤，有或没有其他病变。
• 2 级 – 中度 NPDR – 存在许多微动脉瘤和视网膜出血，伴有或不伴有棉絮斑。
• 3级 – 严重ñ磷DR– 在视网膜的四个象限中存在许多出血和微动脉瘤，在两个或更多象限中存在棉绒斑，在一个或多个象限中存在视网膜内微血管异常。
• 4级-PDR-这是DR的晚期阶段，出现新的狭窄、脆弱或脆弱的血管，具有很高的渗漏风险，可能导致严重的视力丧失，有时甚至失明。图 4 显示了 DR 中不同严重程度的图像。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。