### 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|JAPANESE GRAMMAR

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Japanese Postpositions

Instead of prepositions, Japanese uses postpositions (which can occur multiple times in a sentence). Here are some common Japanese postpositions that are written in Romanji:

• Ka (a marker for a question)
• Wa (the topic of a sentence)
• Ga (the subject of a sentence)
• $\mathrm{O}$ (direct object)
• To (can mean “for” and “and”)
• Ni (physical motion toward something)
• E (toward something)
The particle $k a$ at the end of a sentence in Japanese indicates a question. A simple example of $k a$ is the Romanji sentence Nan desu ka, which means “What is it?”

An example of wa is the following sentence: Watashi wa Nihon jin desu, which means “As for me, I’m Japanese.” By contrast, the sentence Watashi ga Nihon jin desu, which means “It is I (not somebody else) who is Japanese.”
As you can see, Japanese makes a distinction between the topic of a sentence (with $w a$ ) versus the subject of a sentence (with $g a$ ). A Japanese sentence can contain both particles $w a$ and $g a$, with the following twist: if a negative fact is expressed about the noun that precedes $g a$, then $g a$ is replaced with $w a$ and the main verb is written in the negative form. For example, the Romanji sentence “I still have not studied Kanji” is translated into Hiragana as follows:
Watashi wa kanji wa mada benkyou shite imasen.

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Ambiguity in Japanese Sentences

Since Japanese does not pluralize nouns, the same word is used for singular as well as plural, which requires contextual information to determine the exact meaning of a Japanese sentence. As a simple illustration, which is discussed

in more detail later in this chapter under the topic of tokenization, here is a Japanese sentence written in Romanji, followed by Hiragana and Kanji (the second and third sentences are from Google Translate):
Watashi wa tomodachi ni hon o agemashita
$\mathrm{~ क た L ~ क ~ と も た ゙ ち ~ に ~ ほ h ~ お}$

The preceding sentence can mean any of the following, and the correct interpretation depends on the context of a conversation:

• I gave a book to a friend.
• I gave a book to friends.
• I gave books to a friend.
• I gave books to friends.
Moreover, the context for the words “friend” and “friends” in the Japanese sentence is also ambiguous: they do not indicate whose friends (mine, yours, his, or hers). In fact, the following Japanese sentence is also grammatically correct and ambiguous:
Tomodachi ni hon o agemashita
The preceding sentence does not specify who gave a book (or books) to a friend (or friends), but its context will be clear during a conversation. Incidentally, Japanese people often omit the subject pronoun (unless the sentence becomes ambiguous), so it’s more common to see the second sentence (i.e., without Watashi wa) instead of the first Romanji sentence.

Contrast the earlier Japanese sentence with its counterpart in the romance languages Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese, and German (some accent marks are missing for some words):

• Italian: Ho dato un libro a mio amico.
• Spanish: [Yo] Le di un libro a mi amigo.
• Portuguese: Eu dei um livro para meu amigo.
• French: Jai donne un livre au mon ami.
• German. Ich habe ein Buch dem Freund gegeben.
Notice that the Italian and French sentences use a compound verb whose two parts are consecutive (adjacent), whereas German uses a compound verb in which the second part (the past participle) is at the end of the sentence. However, the Spanish and Portuguese sentences use the simple past (the preterit) form of the verb “to give.”

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Japanese Nominalization

Nominalizers convert verbs (or even entire sentences) into a noun. Nominalizers resemble a “that” clause in English, and they are useful when speaking about an action as a noun. Japanese has two nominalizers: no and koto ga.

The nominalizer $O$ (no) is required with verbs of perception, such as 見 (to see) and 閆 $<$ (to listen). For example, the following sentence mean “I love listening to music”, written in Romanji in the first sentence, followed by a second sentence that contains a mixture of Kanji and Hiragana:
Watashi wa ongaku o kiku no ga daisuki desu
The next three sentences all mean “He loves reading a newspaper,” written in Romanji and then Hiragana and Kanji:
Kare wa shimbun o yomu no ga daisuki desu
$\mathrm{~ カ ั 丸 は 新 間 を 読}$

The koto ga nominalizer, which is the other Japanese nominalizer, is used sentences of the form “have you ever …” For example, the following sentence means “Have you (ever) been in Japan?”

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Japanese Postpositions

• Ka（问题的标记）
• Wa（一个句子的主题）
• 嘎（句子的主语）
• ○（直接宾语）
• To（可以表示“for”和“and”）
• Ni（朝向某物的物理运动）
• E（朝向某物）
粒子ķ一个日语句末表示疑问。一个简单的例子ķ一个是罗马字句 Nan desu ka，意思是“它是什么？”

Watashi wa kanji wa mada benkyou shite imasen。

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Ambiguity in Japanese Sentences

Watashi wa tomodachi ni hon oagemashita
कたकともだちにほお ķ稻田大号 ķ 什么时候和稻田゙血液 至 何H 哦

• 我给了朋友一本书。
• 我给了朋友一本书。
• 我把书送给了一个朋友。
• 我把书送给了朋友。
此外，日语句子中“朋友”和“朋友”这两个词的上下文也是模棱两可的：它们不表示谁的朋友（我的、你的、他的或她的）。事实上，下面的日语句子在语法上也是正确的和模棱两可的：
Tomodachi ni hon oagemashita
前面的句子没有具体说明谁把一本书（或几本书）送给了一个朋友（或几个朋友），但它的上下文在对话中会很清楚. 顺便说一句，日本人经常省略主语代词（除非句子变得模棱两可），因此更常见的是看到第二个句子（即没有 Watashi wa）而不是第一个罗马字句子。

• 意大利人：我给了我朋友一本书。
• Chinese: [我] 给了我的朋友一本书。
• Chinese: 我给了我朋友一本书。
• Chinese: 我给了我朋友一本书。
• 德语。Ich habe ein Buch dem Freund gegeben。
请注意，意大利语和法语句子使用复合动词，其两个部分是连续的（相邻），而德语使用复合动词，其中第二部分（过去分词）位于句子的末尾。然而，西班牙语和葡萄牙语的句子使用动词“to give”的简单过去（preterit）形式。

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Japanese Nominalization

Watashi wa ongaku o kiku no ga daisuki desu

Kare wa shimbun o yomu no ga daisuki desu
カั丸は新間を読 力量○丸牙齿新間的阅读

koto ga 名词化器是另一个日语名词化器，用于“你曾经……”形式的句子例如，下面的句子表示“你（曾经）去过日本吗？”

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。