### 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|NLP Concepts

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写自然语言处理NLP方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写自然语言处理NLP代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写自然语言处理NLP相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGES

Someone once remarked that “the origin of language is an enigma,” which is viscerally appealing because it has at least a kernel of truth. Although there are multiple theories that attempt to explain how and why languages developed, none of them has attained universal consensus. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that humans have far surpassed all other species in terms of language development.

There is also the question of how the vocabulary of a language is formed, which can be the confluence of multiple factors, as well as meaning in a language. According to Ludwig Wittgenstein (1953), who was an influential philosopher in many other fields, language derives its meaning from use.

One theory about the evolution of language in humans asserts that the need for communication between humans makes language a necessity. Another explanation is that language is influenced by the task of creating complex tools, because the latter requires a precise sequence of steps, which ultimately spurred the development of languages.

Without delving into their details, the following list contains some theories that have been proposed regarding language development. Keep in mind that they vary in terms of their support in the academic community:

• Strong Minimalist Thesis
• The FlintKnapper Theory
• The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
• Universal Grammar (Noam Chomsky)
The Strong Minimalist Thesis (SRT) asserts that language is based on something called the hierarchical syntactic structure. The FlintKnapper Theory asserts that the ability to create complex tools involved an intricate sequence of steps, which in turn necessitated communication between people. In simplified terms, the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (also called the linguistic relativity hypothesis, which is a slightly weaker form) posits that the language we speak influences how we think. Consider how our physical environment can influence our spoken language: Eskimos have several words to describe snow, whereas people in some parts of the Middle East have never seen a snow storm.

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Language Fluency

As mentioned in the previous section, human infants are capable of producing the sounds of any language, given enough opportunity to imitate those

sounds. They tend to lose some of that capacity as they become older, which might explain why some adults speak another language with an accent (of course, there are plenty of exceptions).

Interestingly, babies respond favorably to the sound of vowel-rich “Parentese” and a study in 2018 suggested that babies prefer the sound of other babies instead of their mother:
https://getpocket.com/explore/item/babies-prefer-the-sounds-of-otherbabies-to-the-cooing-of-their-parents

There are two interesting cases in which people can acquire native-level speech capability. The first case is intuitive: people who have been raised in a bilingual (or multilingual) environment tend to have a greater capacity for learning how to speak other languages with native level (or near native level) speech. Second, people who speak phonetic languages have an advantage when they study another phonetic language, especially one that is in their language group, because they already know how to pronounce the majority of vowel sounds. languages whose pronunciation can be a challenge for practically every non-native speaker. For example, letters that have a guttural sound (such as those in Dutch, German, and Arabic), the glottal stop (most noticeable in Arabic), and the letter “ain” in Arabic are generally more challenging to pronounce for native speakers of romance languages and some Asian languages.

To some extent, the non-phonetic nature of the English language might explain why some monolingual native-English speakers might struggle with learning to speak other languages with native-level speech. Perhaps the closest language to English (in terms of cadence) is Dutch, and people from Holland can often speak native-level English. This tends to be true of Swedes and Danes as well, whose languages are Germanic, but not necessarily true of Germans, who can speak perfect grammatical English but sometimes speak English with an accent.

Perhaps somewhat ironically, sometimes accents can impart a sort of cachet, such as speaking with a British or Australian accent in the United States. Indeed, a French accent can also add a certain je-ne-sais-quoi to a speaker in various parts of the United States.

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Major Language Groups

There are more than 140 language families, and the six largest language families (based on language count) are listed here:

• Niger-Congo
• Austronesian
• Trans-New Guinea
• Sino-Tibetan
• Indo-European
• Afro-Asiatic
English belongs to the Indo-European group, Mandarin belongs to the Sino-Tibetan, and Arabic belongs to the Afro-Asiatic group. According to Wikipedia, Indo-European languages comprise almost 600 languages, including most of the languages in Europe, the northern Indian subcontinent, and the Iranian plateau. Almost half the world speaks an Indo-European language as a native language, which is greater than any of the language groups listed in the introduction of this section. Indo-European has several major language subgroups, which are Germanic, Slavic, and Romance languages. The preceding information is from the following Wikipedia link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_language_families
As of 2019 , the top four languages that are spoken in the world, which counts the number of people who are native speakers or secondary speakers, are as follows:
• English: $1.268$ billion
• Mandarin: $1.120$ billion
• Hindi: $637.3$ million
• Spanish: $537.9$ million
• French: $276.6$ million
The preceding information is from the following Wikipedia link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_total_number_of_ speakers

Many factors can influence the expansion of a given language into multiple countries, such as commerce, economic factors, technological influence, and warfare, thereby resulting in the absorption of new words by another language. Somewhat intuitively, countries with a common border influence each other’s language, sometimes resulting in new hybrid languages.

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGES

• 强大的极简主义论文
• FlintKnapper 理论
• Sapir-Whorf 假说
• 通用语法 (Noam Chomsky)
强极简主义论文 (SRT) 断言语言是基于一种称为层次句法结构的东西。FlintKnapper 理论断言，创建复杂工具的能力涉及一系列错综复杂的步骤，这反过来又需要人与人之间的交流。简而言之，Sapir-Whorf 假设（也称为语言相对论假设，这是一种稍弱的形式）假设我们所说的语言会影响我们的思维方式。想想我们的物理环境如何影响我们的口语：爱斯基摩人有几个词来形容雪，而中东一些地区的人们从未见过暴风雪。

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Language Fluency

https://getpocket.com/explore/item/babies-prefer-the-sounds-of-otherbabies-to-the-cooing-of-their-parents

## 机器学习代写|自然语言处理代写NLP代考|Major Language Groups

• 尼日尔-刚果
• 南岛语
• 跨新几内亚
• 汉藏
• 印欧语系
• 亚非
英语属于印欧语系，普通话属于汉藏语系，阿拉伯语属于亚非语系。根据维基百科，印欧语系包括近 600 种语言，包括欧洲、印度北部次大陆和伊朗高原的大部分语言。世界上几乎有一半的人将印欧语作为母语，这比本节介绍中列出的任何语言组都多。印欧语有几个主要的语言亚群，它们是日耳曼语、斯拉夫语和罗曼语。上述信息来自以下维基百科链接：
https ://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_language_families
截至 2019 年，以母语为母语或第二母语的人数计算，世界上使用最多的四种语言如下：
• 英语：1.268十亿
• Mandarin: 1.120十亿
• 印地语：637.3百万
• 西班牙语：537.9百万
• 法语：276.6万以下是美国
使用的语言列表

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。