### 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECF5040

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The technological revolution: the second

The Second Industrial Revolution, or Technological Revolution, occurred from about 1850 to about 1920 . Its defining features were the massive advancement of manufacturing and organised production capacity, as electricity, telecommunications, transportation, and the production line mobilised ideas, resources, and commerce. The era saw the widespread adoption and innovative integration of technologies throughout supply chains, which transformed production processes and commercial trade using electricity and better business management (Morison 1966). Due to its impact on economic growth and its clear regime shift away from the previous Malthusian dynamics, Galor $(2005)$ and other authors refer to the period of economic history from the Technological Revolution to the present day as the “Sustained Growth Regime.”

Increased productivity can be traced to several technological advances. These especially include the following: the development of the Bessemer process for the mass production of steel parts for construction and machinery; substantial railroad networks for the convenient transportation of people and commerce; the Suez canal and improved access to water-based trade routes with better, powered vessels to navigate them; the invention of the telegraph and telephone for rapid communication of information; the introduction of electrical devices (for example, controlled lighting) and the $\mathrm{AC}$ power sources to manage them; and the technology to support a petroleum industry, which generated fuel and an array of useful chemicals and other materials (Hull 1999). Of course, the Technological Revolution also witnessed the introduction of rubber, internal combustion engines, automobiles, and powered manned flight. Compared to the technological advances made in the Industrial Revolution, network effects and widespread adoption of technological applications in each industry during the Technological Revolution caused faster increases in living standards, as seen in Figure 2.1. In the latter years of the Technological Revolution, the domestic consumer market rose as an influential driver of new products, including durables, spurred on by dramatic population growth and rising incomes, especially in the United States.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The digital revolution: the third

The Digital Revolution, or Third Industrial Revolution, found its roots in the postwar 1950 s and, in the opinion of the authors, concluded in the mid-2000s when smartphones and multipurpose mobile computing devices first became widespread. The defining feature of the Digital Revolution was the mass production of microprocessors and various other electronic devices for computation, communication, and data storage. The rapid pace of growth in this sector drew significant attention from researchers (Chow 1967; Bresnahan 1986). In essence, the era saw the rise of computing power and storage capacity in accordance with Moore’s law, along with new data transmission technologies. Some of the most economically valuable applications of this new technology included personal computers, the CD-ROM, the internet, automated teller machines, digital cameras, and cell phones (Garifova 2015).

Another glance at Figure $2.1$ shows that during the Digital Revolution, per capita incomes skyrocketed at a pace far beyond that of the previous two industrial revolutions. Of course, there were also negative pollution externalities resulting from production processes which are not represented in per capita incomes (Bowers 2014). The aforementioned technological applications generated increased productivity in several ways (Jorgenson and Stiroh 2014). For instance, the ability to communicate instantly via email or while commuting with a cell phone meant that less idle time was wasted waiting for a response, and the cost of communicating fell, leading to quicker decisions and higher labour productivity. This included the technology to achieve cost-effective one-to-many communication via email, instead of the old one-to-one communication via phone or post. This scalability supported the growth of many businesses. It also enabled travellers to be more productive while away from the ordinary work environment (Wardman and Lyons 2016). Moreover, the commoditisation of knowledge through organised digital storage and retrieval systems, along with the means to search for, reproduce, and copy information as required, generated positive externalities leading to greater human capital resources and higher labour productivity (Jorgenson 2001). In addition, the heightened ability to process and interpret data enabled more accurate modelling to occur in a variety of industries, creating better preparedness for contingencies and less time and money wasted on avoidable mistakes. Another large contributor to the massive growth in output per capita stemmed from the general replacement of humans with computers for mundane administrative functions (Acemoglu et al. 2014). Not only were workers freed to spend their time solving higher-order problems and tasks, but their previous administrative tasks were completed with fewer costly errors, in less time. As Pabilonia and Zoghi (2005) point out, however, wages tended to rise only when workers were able to learn new skills to use the new and more efficient technology. Many former job roles had to be completely reimagined (Levy and Murnane 1996). Instant communication around the world helped make international outsourcing more affordable, enabling many smaller businesses to access and grow into the global marketplace (Litan and Rivlin 2001).

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The Fourth Industrial Revolution

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (henceforth, 4IR) is the current period of economic transition since the mid-2000s, which is characterized by a fusion of new digital technologies, rooted in advances from the Digital Revolution, with technological applications in the physical and biological domains. This fusion is also known as “technology convergence” (Park 2017).

Klaus Schwab, the Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, is credited for bringing to the world’s attention the importance of the 4IR, presenting a strong case that the characteristics of the transitions now facing economic institutions, industry and society at large are of a fundamentally different nature to those seen in the Digital Revolution. His seminal book, The Fourth Industrial Revolution, argues that the present industrial revolution exceeds the Digital Revolution as measured by (1) the velocity of technology convergence; (2) the breadth and depth of the institutional shifts reshaping our identity and modus operandi; and (3) the impact at the systems level not just within, but also across, industries and countries (Schwab 2016, p. 8).

Schwab goes onto list what he identifies as the most influential “technological mega-trends” of the 4IR, which underpin and drive the changes we are presently witnessing. In the physical category, he notes the role of autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, advanced robotics, and new materials for construction and design. In the digital category, he highlights the pervasive impact of the so-called (Industrial) Internet of Things (IoT/IloT), blockchain applications, and various digital platforms designed for large numbers of users. In the biological category, Schwab emphasizes the rapid developments in synthetic biology, health maintenance, and the neurosciences. Many other technological trends of the 4IR are discussed in the sequel book, Shaping the Future of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Schwab 2018).
In this book, we suggest that the latest generation digital platforms and IIoT systems based on evolving Internet technologies, the many creative blockchain use cases (beyond crypto-currency), and the applications of artificial intelligence which replace automation with “smartization” (Park 2017) are the three most important of all of these technological mega-trends in terms of their realised and potential impact on the economy and its institutions.

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。