### 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON 7001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|THE TELOS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS

In this section, we introduce a useful framework to not only understand why technological applications were successfully adopted in the first three industrial revolutions, but also understand some of the fundamental human forces driving changes now and in the future through the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Earlier it was mentioned that industrial revolutions occur when major systematic and industry-independent breakthrough applications of innovative technology permit new manifestations of essential economic institutions or marketplaces and shift the aggregate production possibilities frontier outward while permanently raising the standard of living. Now, at the end of the day, these applications of innovative technology will only have an impact on the economy if people, whether acting individually or within legally ordained groups (such as companies, government organisations, or nongovernmental organisations), decide to adopt and use them. This adoption decision is key because it represents an allocation of limited time and limited resources (such as money) towards procurement and implementation, in preference to alternative possible allocations.

In a free marketplace, rational economic agents only allocate time and resources towards those things which they perceive as sufficiently valuable – at least as valuable as the time and resources spent in procurement and consumption in order to realise the utility of the thing. Many thousands of pages have been devoted to studying choice theory and answering the question of what constitutes “rationality.” We will not delve into this literature here beyond a few observations.

In the standard economic model, the rationality axioms are (1) completeness, where agents maintain a preference ordering across every pair of elements in their action set, and (2) transitivity, where agents have consistent preference orderings. The typical economic axioms which accompany these are (1) monotoniaty, where more of a thing is generally preferred to less of it, and (2) convexity, where variety is generally preferred to monotony. Expected utility maximisation and Bayesian

probability theory are used to extend this simplistic concept of rationality to more realistic decisions under an uncertainty of the outcomes (Simon 1955; Gomes 2011). Other extensions involving discounting and time preferences are relevant when the utility of the thing is not immediately realised or is realised over an extended period. Behavioural economic models tend to extend the idea of rationality to “the pursuit of perceived self-interest” in order to account for bounded rationality due to incomplete information or cognitive failures and the observation that agents tend to make decisions using heuristics rather than strictly optimising their payoffs (Baumeister 2001; Wilkinson and Klaes 2012, p. 8).

For this discussion, however, we are less interested in the mechanics of rationality and more interested in the derivation of value. We are less interested in choice theory and more interested in the underlying causes of preferences. Instead of asking “What do people prefer?” we must ask “What do people want?” and “What motivates people to act and pursue something?” This will help us to identify the general direction in which trends will move in the economy.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Means, ends, and value

A helpful, if not Aristotelian, approach to think about this question is in terms of means and ends. Most people, whether they consciously think about it or not, have some list of objectives, either tacit or explicit, which they are striving towards, either in the short-term, medium-term, or long-term. Several prominent recent authors, including Sen (1990), have raised similar points. Sen opined, “Rationality may be seen as demanding something other than just consistency of choices between different subset. It must, at least, demand cogent relations between aims and objectives actually entertained by the person and the choices that the person makes.”

Now, most people desire to attain some sufficient measure of satisfaction or happiness, and the attainment of such may be considered the ultimate end or final end towards which people are striving. Indeed, in his Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle argues that
if there is only one final end, this will be the good of which we are in search; and if there are more than one, it will be the most final of these. Now we call an object pursued for its own sake more final than one pursued because of something else, and one which is never choosable because of another more final than those which are choosable because of it as well as for their own sakes; and that which is always choosable for its own sake and never because of something else we call final without any qualification. Well, happiness more than anything else is thought to be just such an end, because we always choose it for itself, and never for any other reason. It is different with honour, pleasure, intelligence and good qualities generally. We do choose them partly for themselves… but we choose them also for the sake of our happiness, in the belief that they will be instrumental in promoting it.
$$\text { (Aristotle, 1097a, p. } 30,1097 b, p .5)$$With reference to this line of reasoning, we shall refer to those ends which are distinct from but tend to support the attainment of human satisfaction and happiness as instrumental ends or penultimate ends. These penultimate ends are those meaningful things in life which people generally consider to be desirable ends in themselves, but which also represent a means to obtain the ultimate end. One’s ultimate end cannot be determined using economics. It does not matter for the purpose of this analysis what a person’s ultimate end is, but only that nearly everyone is in agreement on the things which will make it easier for you to attain it.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Transcendental value

The higher-order, or transcendental, penultimate end in our model is self-realization. Self-realization represents the state of being in which you no longer need to be substantially concerned with allocating significant amounts of time to the first six penultimate ends beyond that required to protect and sustain them, giving you

the ultimate freedom to pour time and resources into pursuing the higher objectives that you have set for your life, which you ultimately find most fulfilling. To illustrate, some people might suggest that self-realization can be most fully pursued when a person is financially free, possesses a loving and supportive family who loves them in return, has decent health, lives in a free society, is respected by the community, has plans for future contingencies, and has good relationships with other people who can help them achieve their objectives.

The exact nature of these objectives may differ from individual to individual, but could be determined by honestly answering the following question: “If you had everything you ever needed and sufficient means to achieve any goal you set out to work towards, what things would you work towards and how would you subsequently spend your time?” Self-realization cuts right to the question of “What do you really live for?” For some, this might be the cultivation of virtue, learning, or philanthropy, or an elevation of the mind and spirit, or the fulfilment of potential; for others, this might represent having enough time to enjoy the simple and good things in life simply because they are good. An individual’s objectives with regard to self-realization will tend to be heavily reliant upon their moral philosophy, ethics, religion, and broader worldview.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Means, ends, and value

（亚里士多德，1097a，p。 30,1097b,p.5)关于这条推理路线，我们将把那些不同于但倾向于支持获得人类满足和幸福的目标称为工具性目标或倒数第二个目标。这些倒数第二个目的是生活中那些有意义的事情，人们通常认为它们本身就是可取的目的，但它们也代表了获得最终目的的一种手段。一个人的最终目的不能用经济学来确定。对于这个分析的目的来说，一个人的最终目的是什么并不重要，只要几乎每个人都同意会让你更容易实现它的事情。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。