### 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON3121

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|From economic stagnation to economic growth

Before the mid-eighteenth century, economic growth rates in per capita terms across most of the world were minute and barely discernible. Income per capita witnessed no substantial change for many centuries. Figure $2.1$ illustrates this for

England, which was chosen due to the economy possessing relatively accurate and tractable long-run historical datasets. England was also a first-mover in leading the world into the Industrial Revolution. The next two hundred years witnessed economic per capita growth rates sustained at levels never seen before in human history.

The transition from economic stagnation to economic prosperity remains enigmatic, since it cannot adequately be described within the framework of the neoclassical models of economic growth (with endogenous or exogenous technological change) designed exclusively to account for the last 150 years of data. The characteristics of pre-industrial economies have not typically been emphasised in the creation of modern growth theory. There has subsequently emerged a substantial body of scholarship devoted to answering the following questions:

• Why has most of economic history been characterized by little if any sustained growth in GDP per capita?
• What technological developments and behavioural or institutional structures created the right conditions for the economy to break out of this growth stagnation?
• Why did the demographic transition take place?
• Why was there a large divergence in world economic development? Why did some economies around the world develop faster and earlier than others?

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Malthusian dynamics and the pre-growth era

Most of economic history around the world prior to the early eighteenth century epitomised the Malthusian Trap – a state of the economy where an expansion of

resources derived from technological advances led to a counter-balancing population expansion, with the result that long-run per-capita living standards generally remained unchanged (Boserup 1965). This phenomenon was reflected in the “iron law of wages” from the works of Thomas $\mathrm{R}$. Malthus (Malthus 1798 ), whose pessimistic view of the prospects for growth based on the historical data at that time is one reason economics was once dubbed the “dismal science.”

The essence of the Malthusian economy is displayed in Figure $2.2$ and in Figure $2.3$. Figure $2.2$ portrays the data showing that earnings began to rise soon after the Black Death plague led to the deaths of many tens of millions of people across Europe around 1350 . Eventually as the population levels recovered, earnings began to fall. Figure $2.3$ illustrates this in a more abstract form; any technological advances made during these centuries tended to increase the population size without any substantial impact on the wage levels (Voigtländer and Voth 2013). A more comprehensive and dynamic Malthusian model involving overlapping generations was introduced by Ashraf and Galor (2011), who showed that land productivity was linked to population density in the pre-growth era, rather than per capita income. These observations motivated Adam Smith’s statement in his Wealth of Nations that “[t]he most decisive mark of the prosperity of any country is the increase of the number of its inhabitants” (Smith 1776).

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The industrial revolution: the first

The First Industrial Revolution, or simply, the Industrial Revolution, is widely understood to have occurred from about 1760 to about 1840 in Great Britain, which is often cited as the example economy due to its first-runner status in the list of world economies moving out of the Malthusian stagnation (Berg and Hudson 1992). Its defining features were the invention of the steam engine and the widespread construction of railroads (Taylor 1951 ), which made mechanical production possible and opened new possibilities for communication and trade networks (Inikori 2002). Put simply, technology was developed which enabled the construction of infrastructure to support the production of more valuable goods and services within a given timeframe, with the same resources (Rosenberg 1983). Infrastructure was also developed, which allowed for the development of larger global marketplaces for communication, trade, and investment. A greater proportion of GDP began to be sourced from non-agrarian sectors (Overton 1996).

This general period of economic history has also been referred to as the “PostMalthusian Regime” by Galor (2005) and other scholars. Moller and Sharp (2014), however, argues that England had “already escaped the Malthusian Epoch” about two hundred years before the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Their empirical conclusions are based on estimating a cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR) Malthusian model between birth (and death) rates and income. Klemp and Moller (2016) raise the salient point that a transitory post-Malthusian era is probably not a necessary step for economies as they pass out of economic stagnation to sustained growth. Instead, it may be a unique characteristic of the English economy.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|From economic stagnation to economic growth

• 为什么大部分经济历史的特点是人均国内生产总值几乎没有持续增长？
• 哪些技术发展和行为或制度结构为经济摆脱增长停滞创造了合适的条件？
• 为什么会发生人口转变？
• 世界经济发展为何出现巨大差异？为什么世界上一些经济体比其他经济体发展得更快、更早？

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Malthusian dynamics and the pre-growth era

18 世纪早期之前的世界大部分经济史都集中体现了马尔萨斯陷阱——一种经济扩张的经济状态。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。