### 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON3400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Evolution of socioeconomic systems

In the Brisbane Club model, socioeconomic systems are formed by the behaviour of individuals acting on the basis of their psychology and socioeconomic environment enabled by technology as we have seen. Their structure, however, is incomplete as Jason Potts $(2000)$ argued, which Earl and Wakeley $(2010)$ argued is the natural outcome of the capability, cognitive, and psychological constraints imposed by the psychological process, so there is scope for their evolution. Socioeconomic connections are formed as a result of individual behaviour changing in response to the socioeconomic environment. So when an individual begins to interact with someone they had hitherto not interacted with, a new connection is created as a result of the changed behaviour – either completely or as a result of the transfer of an existing connection. If you are the logistics manager for a manufacturer and you change your choice of suppliers, you will transfer your existing connections to the new supplier and cause the economic system to evolve. If you are an entrepreneur and get your first customer for your startup, you will cause a new connection to come into existence and cause the economic system to evolve and grow.

There are various points in the psychological process at which factors in the environment and the mind itself may cause behaviour to change and thus cause behaviour to change. The study of these points in the psychological process has been the particular project of one of the present authors (Markey-Towler, 2017, $2018 \mathrm{a}, 2018 \mathrm{~b}, 2018 \mathrm{c}$ ), drawing substantially on the work of Peter Earl (2017), in particular studying the evolution of behaviour in complex socioeconomic systems.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Substitutes and complements: incentives and technology

Traditionally, economic theory has studied behaviour as governed by what technologies are available to extend the range of human capability (Lawson, 2010), thus the “feasible set” (Becker, 1962) and the rival incentive structures available as a result of that capability (Friedman, 1962; Marshall, 1890). These traditional dynamics in behavioural change are preserved in the present theory, as they ought to be. Incentives and technology gain their force over behaviour through the phenomena of substitutability and complementarity in particular.

A state of substitutability exists if we can find a particular incentive structure associated with a given course of action such that it obtains equivalent preferability with another. To put it in different terms, a state of substitutability exists when we could take one action, substitute another for it, and obtain expected outcomes of roughly equivalent preferability. If a state of substitutability exists, then we may observe a change of behaviour as long as the incentives associated with a nonselected course of action improve to a point where they cause the implications of that action to become more preferable than those associated with the currently adopted behaviour. Obviously such behaviour change will be observed most commonly when incentive structures are changing as a result of prices (Friedman, 1962). Typically, if the price of some new product is lowered to a point below that associated with the state of substitutability then we will observe a change of behaviour whereby the now relatively inexpensive new product is substituted for the old. We may, alternatively, observe such a change of behaviour when incentive structures are changing as a result of product attributes (Ironmonger, 1972; Lancaster, $1966 a, 1966 b$ ), so that as the attributes of some new product – for instance, an internet browser – improve to a point beyond that associated with the state of substitutability, we will observe a change of behaviour. Substitution is not limited to transferring connections, though; it may be the case that new connections are brought into existence when the incentive structures associated with some new good or service exceed the point at which they create a state of substitutability between doing nothing and obtaining that good or service, thereby creating a new connection.

A state of substitutability might not exist, however, at which point we need to consider other means by which behavioural change might be brought about. The existence of a state of substitutability can be undermined for a number of reasons,most obviously by the existence of needs as distinct from wants. Ironmonger (1972) provided a model which showed how until needs can be met by some course of action, it cannot be considered as a viable course of action to be engaged in. As Blatt (1979) put it somewhat dramatically to make a point, it is rather difficult to imagine that any conceivable state of substitutability could exist between some course of action in everyday life and one with a degree of certainty to lead to being hanged on the gallows. But the operation of simple cognitive rules in our psyche may also undermine the existence of a state of substitutability insofar as they impose requirements which must be met by any given course of action before it can even be considered as a viable course of action to be engaged in. If this is the case, we may need technology to improve the outcomes which may be associated with a given course of action before it can be considered as a viable course of action. For instance, a state of substitutability between an airline with a poor safety record and one with a good safety record can only exist in the minds of so many consumers until its organisational and physical technology improves sufficiently to establish its preferability. Technology plays a “facilitating” role here in making the existence of a state of substitutability more feasible, but it can also play an “expansionary” role in the way it may interact with the set of capabilities and the realisation of complementarities.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Creativity, experimentation, play, and narratives in mental evolution

At the most basic level, before some new behaviour can be realised, the knowledge of how and why to engage in it must be contained within mental networks in order for the individual to engage in it. If it were not contained therein there would be no basis for analysis which includes the implications of that action. This is especially important in the context of understanding technology as technology will often make things possible which had not even been thought of before. So if a change of behaviour is to emerge and cause the socioeconomic system to evolve, it may often be necessary for the knowledge of how and why to engage in it to be incorporated into the mind first (Markey-Towler, 2018c).

It is well known that our minds are not a “blank slate” – we are born with certain innate structures in our mental networks (Pinker, 2002). However, we are not limited to this innate structure; our minds can grow by the incorporation of new connections into the mind, a process we call “development,” whereby schema for classifying, categorising, and understanding the world grow (Piaget, 1923). The origins of such connections are three. In the first instance, we must recognise the possibility that such connections may be created ex nihilio as a result of deep creativity, forming a “bisociation,” which Arthur Koestler (1964) famously called “the act of creation.” However, apparent connections between objects and events in the environment may also present themselves to the senses and thereby be perceived. Broadly speaking, there are two particularly important means, aside from simple interpersonal communication, by which such connections may present themselves to the senses: experimentation and play. By experimentation we mean conscious actions which cause new information to be present in the environment which presents new connections to the individual. John Dewey (1910), among others, identified this as a source of new connections which might be incorporated into the mind in the process of learning. By play we mean those activities which are engaged in for the sake of it which happen to cause new information to be presented to the senses – which Piaget (1923), among others, identified as a particularly important source of new connections especially in childhood.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。