经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON7400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Salience, chains, and anchoring: framing the environment

What knowledge manifest in our mental networks is “brought to mind” in the process of analysis depends on what objects, events, and classifications thereof are called to mind by that process. This depends, of course, on the way information is transformed into percepts of objects and events in the environment. This depends on two phenomena we call “salience” and “chains.” The effect of those percepts on behaviour is then obtained by their effect on preferences, which depends on a further phenomenon we call “anchoring.”

The totality of the information which exists in our environment is not mapped to percepts of objects and events within it, only a small fraction. We only notice what is noticeable. We call this phenomenon “salience” – only that information which corresponds to objects and events which makes a sufficient impression on the sensory organs relative to the environment is mapped to percepts of those objects and events. This has the effect of “focussing” our attention on the most salient objects and events in our environment. Hence, we tend to notice more extreme and unusual events in the environment relative to common ones, we tend to notice gaudy and loud advertisements, we tend to be dominated by our emotions rather than thoughts about the future, and so on.

We also do not perceive only the base sense-data of our environment. We also perceive higher-order categorisations and classifications thereof. The phenomenon by which this is brought about we call “chains,” and is underlain by the way neurons excite one another by the passage of charge along synaptic networks. If a set of anterior percepts are perceived which are sufficiently strongly connected to a posterior set of percepts in mental networks, then the latter will be perceived as well. So the phenomenon of chains means that our understanding of reality affects the way we observe reality. This, of course, is one way that our personality – the tendencies within the way we construe events – manifests in the world, as our perception is contingent on the personality which manifests in our mental networks. It is also how it comes to be that we judge different objects and events to have such a degree of similarity that we can represent them to be members of the same category.

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|evolution of socioeconomic systems at the micro-level

The Brisbane Club model views socioeconomic systems as complex evolving systems, where the connective structure of the system is changing and evolving as individual behaviour changes in response to the environment, changing technology, and changing psychology. It offers a more or less coherent perspective on how individual behaviour changes, and thus how socioeconomic systems evolve at a micro-scale by the creation of new connections or the transfer of existing ones. Broadly speaking, we have established that behaviour changes due to the role of incentives and technology, the role of mental evolution, and the role of “framing.”

In the first instance, socioeconomic systems may evolve as incentives within them change, causing individuals to substitute between existing modes of behaviour and new modes of behaviour – such as that which would constitute the adoption of a new technology – as long as incentives are sufficient to do so. If there is no incentive structure under which such substitution may be obtained, then technological change may be required so as for necessities and requisites to be met. Technology may also cause socioeconomic systems to evolve in a more direct manner by expanding the range of human capability and making it possible to realise complementarities between various elements of behaviour.

If incentives are not particularly relevant, and technology has already made the realisation of complementarities feasible, behavioural change is brought about by the development and application of personal knowledge. New ideas about how and why to behave in a new manner – such as adopting a new technology – must be developed by creativity, experimentation, and play, and then incorporated into the mind. Those ideas which are simple, connect objects and events with a powerful hold on the individual’s attention, and build on the periphery of existing mental networks without contradicting them greatly are more likely to be incorporated. The environment must then be framed so as for that knowledge to be applied to perception of the environment in the process of analysis in such a way as for new modes of behaviour to be selected. This requires that the information which corresponds to positive non-inert anchors for new modes of behaviour, or information that corresponds to perceptual antecedents thereof which are strongly connected to them, to be placed and presented in such a way as to have a significant impression on the sensory organs, and the opposite for negative non-inert anchors.

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考| new ways of doing things cause disruption, then re-coordination

The Brisbane Club model of socioeconomic systems is what we call “methodologically individualist.” It takes the individual human being as the fundamental unit of socioeconomic analysis and builds a perspective from this basis (Hodgson, 2007). There are limitations to a strictly individualist methodology, however, as any “higher level” analysis of large parts of the system is difficult with a model which does not abstract away from individual idiosyncrasies. This is, of course, the reason that any economics needs some form of a “representative agent” in order to analyse the functioning of socioeconomic systems at any higher level of analysis.

The singular contribution of Kurt Dopfer, John Foster and Jason Potts (2004) to the Brisbane Club model was to provide a means for doing so in the form of the micro-meso-macro framework.

As we broaden our perspective on socioeconomic systems from the level of the individual to take in groups of greater and greater size, we can begin to observe certain regularities in the way individuals interact with their socioeconomic environment. What we are observing in these regularities is the operation of what Dopfer, Foster and Potts $(2004)$ called the “meso-rule.” A meso-rule is a cognitive structure for interpreting how and why to act in a particular socioeconomic environment which has sufficient regularity as to allow us to define a corresponding “meso-population” of individuals who act according to the dictates of that rule without loss to our analysis. At the macroeconomic level, we therefore see the socioeconomic system as a network between various meso-populations of individuals interacting according to a particular rule structure. These rules ought to be defined pragmatically for the purposes of analysis and can be both technical rules (which might define, say, an industry as a meso-population by its production technology) or psychological rules (which might define, say, a particular class of consumer as a meso-population by the commonalities in their consumption behaviour).

经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考| new ways of doing things cause disruption, then re-coordination

Kurt Dopfer、John Foster 和 Jason Potts (2004) 对布里斯班俱乐部模型的独特贡献是以微观-中观-宏观框架的形式提供了一种方法。

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