### 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Preface: To the Instructor

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Introductory Material

Chapter 1, “Ten Principles of Economics,” introduces students to the economist’s view of the world. It previews some of the big ideas that recur throughout economics, such as opportunity cost, marginal decision making, the role of incentives, the gains from trade, and the efficiency of market allocations. Throughout the book, I refer regularly to the Ten Principles of Economics introduced in Chapter 1 to remind students that these ideas are the foundation for all economics.

Chapter 2, “Thinking Like an Economist,” examines how economists approach their field of study. It discusses the role of assumptions in developing a theory and introduces the concept of an economic model. It also explores the role of economists $\mathrm{~ i n ̃ ~ m a k k i n g ~ p o o l i c y . ~ T h i s ~ c h a ̆ p t e ̂ r ‘ s ~ a p p e n e n d i x ~ o ̂ f e r e r s ~ a ~ b r i e ̂ ~ r e ̂ f r e}$ graphs are used, as well as how they can be abused.

Chapter 3 , “Interdependence and the Gains from Trade, ” presents the theory of comparative advantage. This theory explains why individuals trade with their neighbors, as well as why nations trade with other nations. Much of economics is about how market forces coordinate many individual production and consumption decisions. As a starting point for this analysis, students see in this chapter why specialization, interdependence, and trade can benefit everyone.

I next introduce the basic tools of supply and demand. Chapter 4 , “The Market Forces of Supply and Demand, ” develops the supply curve, the demand curve, and the notion of market equilibrium. This microeconomic model is the starting point for much of macroeconomic theory.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Macroeconomics

My overall approach to teaching macroeconomics is to examine the economy in the long run (when prices are flexible) before examining the economy in the short run (when prices are sticky). I believe that this organization simplifies learning macroeconomics for several reasons. First, the classical assumption of price flexibility is more closely linked to the basic lessons of supply and demand, which students have already mastered. Second, the classical dichotomy allows the study of the long run to be broken up into several easily digested pieces. Third, because the business cycle represents a transitory deviation from the economy’s long-run grow th path, studying the transitory deviations is more natural after the longrun equilibrium is understood. Fourth, the macroeconomic theory of the long run is less controversial among economists than is the macroeconomic theory of the short run. For these reasons, most upper-level courses in macroeconomics now follow this long-run-before-short-run approach; my goal is to offer introductory students the same advantage.

I start the coverage of macroeconomics with issues of measurement. Chapter 5 , “Measuring a Nation’s Income,” discusses the meaning of gross domestic product and related statistics from the national income accounts. Chapter 6 , “Measuring the Cost of Living, ” examines the measurement and use of the consumer price index.
The next four chapters describe the behavior of the real economy in the long run. Chapter 7, “Production and Growth,” examines the determinants of the large variation in living standards over time and across countries. Chapter 8 , “Saving, Investment, and the Financial System,” discusses the types of financial institutions in our economy and examines their role in allocating resources. Chapter 9 , “The Basic Tools of Finance, ” introduces present value, risk management, and asset pricing. Chapter 10, “Unemployment,” considers the long-run determinants of the unemployment rate, including job search, minimum-wage laws, the market power of unions, and efficiency wages.

Having described the long-run behavior of the real economy, the book then turns to the long-run behavior of money and prices. Chapter 11, “The Monetary System,” introduces the economist’s concept of money and the role of the central bank in controlling the quantity of money. Chapter 12 , “Money Growth and Inflation,” develops the classical theory of inflation and discusses the costs that inflation imposes on a society.

The next two chapters present the macroeconomics of open economies, maintaining the long-run assumptions of price flexibility and full employment. Chapter 13, “Open-Economy Macroeconomics: Basic Concepts,” explains the relationship among saving, investment, and the trade balance, the distinction between the nominal and real exchange rate, and the theory of purchasing-power parity. Chapter 14, “A Macroeconomic Theory of the Open Economy,” presents a classical model of the international flow of goods and capital. The model sheds light on various issues, including the link between budget deficits and trade deficits and the macroeconomic effects of trade policies. Because instructors differ in their emphasis on this material, these chapters are written so they can be used in different ways. Some may choose to cover Chapter 13 but not Chapter 14 ; others may skip both chapters; and still others may choose to defer the analysis of open-economy macroeconomics until the end of their courses.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Learning Tools

The purpose of this book is to help students learn the fundamental lessons of economics and to show how they can apply these lessons to their lives and the world in which they live. Toward that end, I have used various learning tools that recur throughout the book.
Case Studies
Economic theory is useful and interesting only if it can be applied to understanding actual events and policies. This book, therefore, contains numerous case studies that apply the theory that has just been developed.
In the News Boxes
One benefit that students gain from studying economics is a new perspective and greater understanding about news from around the world. To highlight this benefit, I have included excerpts from many newspaper and magazine articles, some of which are opinion columns written by prominent economists. These articles, together with my brief introductions, show how basic economic theory can be applied. Most of these boxes are new to this edition. And for the first time in this

edition, each news article ends with “Questions to Discuss,” which can be used to start a dialogue in the classroom.
FYI Boxes
These boxes provide additional material “for your information.” Some of them offer a glimpse into the history of economic thought. Others clarify technical issues. Still others discuss supplementary topics that instructors might choose either to discuss or skip in their lectures.
This feature summarizes results from the IGM Economics Experts Panel, an ongoing survey of several dozen prominent economists. Every few weeks, these experts are offered a statement and then asked whether they agree with it, disagree with it, or are uncertain about it. The survey results appear in the chapters near the coverage of the relevant topic. They give students a sense of when economists are united, when they are divided, and when they just don’t know what to think.

FYI 框

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。