经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Comparative advantage

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经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Comparative advantage

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Comparative advantage

Comparative advantage is the basis for trade, is fundamental to economic analysis, and is a topic covered by all principles textbooks. This subsection includes two methods that have been used with some success. There is nothing really new in this section, but I find the methods satisfying. My mantra is (with apology to Shakespeare): “Opportunity cost, opportunity cost, all is opportunity cost.”

Evidently, David Ricardo’s demonstration of comparative advantage as the basis for trade is a stroke of genius. The first seven chapters of his famous book (1821, p. 82) present his model of an economy in which agricultural land is supplied in discrete amounts – a given amount of the best land, a given amount of next-best land, and so on. As the population grows, land of lower quality must be used, which generates land rent for the land of higher quality. The economy is hampered by the nature of land supply and by the tendency for land rent to increase as the population grows. What to do? Ricardo hit upon the idea that England could specialize in the production of cloth, export cloth, and import agricultural products – instead of imposing tariffs (Corn Laws) on the importation of agricultural products. As a Member of Parliament and public intellectual, he argued his case, and the Corn Laws eventually were eliminated after his death in 1823 .

Here is Ricardo’s example, slightly modified. England and Portugal produce wine and cloth. The number of workers needed to produce a “shipload” of wine and cloth in the two countries are as follows:

Note that Ricardo built in the assumption that Portugal has the absolute advantage in both products because fewer workers are needed in Portugal than in England to produce either product (even though by 1819 , England was the world’s premier manufacturer of cloth). Because the opportunity cost of wine for cloth (and cloth for wine) is different in the two countries, there is “room for a deal.” Here’s the deal.
Suppose Portugal shifts 80 workers from cloth production to wine production, thus gaining one shipload of wine at the opportunity cost of $8 / 9$ shipload of cloth. The opportunity cost of cloth is $9 / 8$ shiploads of wine.

At the same time, suppose that England shifts 100 workers from wine production to cloth production, thus gaining one shipload of cloth at the opportunity cost of $5 / 6$ shipload of wine. The opportunity cost of cloth is $6 / 5$ shiploads of cloth.

Assume that the (barter) exchange rate is one shipload of wine for one shipload of cloth. Portugal ships the shipload of wine and England ships the shipload of cloth. I imagine one ship going back and forth. Portugal now has the original amounts of cloth and wine, and England now has the original amounts of cloth and wine as well. But look again. Portugal has gained the output of 10 workers. And England has gained the output of 20 workers. Both countries have gained output with no change in the number of workers because each country has specialized in the product with the lower opportunity cost.

The whole business relies on finding an exchange rate at which both countries gain. An exchange rate of one shipload of wine for one shipload of cloth was assumed. But given that the opportunity costs differ in the two countries, such an exchange rate (really a range of exchange rates) exists and there is a strong incentive for the two countries to find an exchange rate at which to strike a deal.

Ricardo’s example is convincing, but another method makes explicit use of production possibility frontiers. Refer to Figure 1.5. England’s production possibility frontier is labeled E, and Portugal’s is $\mathrm{P}$. The outer line is their combined production possibility curve. The diagram is drawn so that neither country has an absolute advantage, but the opportunity costs in the two countries are different. England has the comparative advantage in cloth, while Portugal has the comparative advantage in wine.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|International trade policy

There are two basic parts to international trade policy – exchange rate policy, and policies that directly impact exports and imports. Consider these in turn.

Exchange rate policy has three basic types. The first one is a floating exchange rate in which the rate is determined by demand and supply in the market for a currency, as shown in Figure 1.4. However, the central bank of the nation can change interest rates and thereby influence the exchange rate by altering the demand and supply of interest-earning assets. The third policy is to maintain a fixed exchange rate with the rest of the world. In this case, the central bank must buy or sell currency to maintain the same exchange rate. In other words, the central bank steps into the market and shifts the supply or demand for its own currency. If the central bank wishes to lower the exchange rate (the price of its own currency in terms of other currencies), it sells its own currency on the international market. To raise the exchange rate, the central bank buys its own currency.

What objective might be pursued using exchange rate policy? If the nation wishes to expand its exports, the central bank can keep the exchange rate lower than it otherwise would be. For example, China did in fact pursue such a policy from about 1997 to 2006 . However, as export industries expand, prices of output may eventually go up. Since 2006 , the price of the yuan has gone from about 8 yuan per dollar to 6 yuan per dollar, pushing up the price of Chinese goods.

What about trade policy that involves direct intervention into export and import markets? Intervention into import markets usually comes in the form of tariffs, which are taxes on the imported goods. The prices of the goods increase to those who purchase them, and the government collects tax revenue from the firms that sell these goods. In effect, the taxes are paid by the consumers. The firms in the exporting nation see a reduction in the quantity of exports and likely no change in the price at which they sell the product. If the tariff is targeted at the exports of one particular exporting nation, purchasers of those products can switch to imports from other nations. Domestic firms that produce the same product in the nation imposing the tariff may see their outputs rise as well.

Other trade policies pertaining to imports include import quotas and health and safety regulations. These policies also reduce imports, but the government receives no tax revenue. Domestic firms will see outputs rise.

Trade policies can also target exports. Export subsidies are used to promote exports. Such subsidies may permit the exporting firms to sell in export markets at below the actual cost of production. International organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), attempt to limit selling below cost, but proving “dumping” often is difficult.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|how monetary policy works

You need to know how the supply of money is created. The United States has had a central bank, the Federal Reserve System (the Fed), since 1913. And the United Kingdom has had the Bank of England since the 17th century. Countries with advanced economies have central banks. A central bank is not a regular bank but a government agency charged with two missions – to prevent financial panics and to stabilize the economy. A central bank prevents (or at least lessens) a financial panic by being the “lender of last resort” for financial institutions that are running short of cash because creditors are demanding their money. As former Fed chairman Ben Bernanke (2013, 2015) explained, the Federal Reserve undertook a great deal of this sort of effort during the financial crisis that began in 2008 , and these actions will be discussed in Chapter $14 .$
Central banks attempt to stabilize the economy through the use of monetary policy. Here is a simplified balance sheet of a typical bank – call it Bank A.

The basic balance sheet equation is assets equal liabilities plus net worth $(\mathrm{A}=\mathrm{L}+$ NW). Banks take in deposits, both checking accounts and time deposits (certificates of deposit), and make loans to customers, such as home mortgages and loans to businesses. Banks also invest in government bonds and hold reserves. Consider how it works in the United States. Banks are required to hold a certain amount of reserves, and the Fed is responsible for seeing that this requirement is met. Reserves consist of cash on hand (called vault cash) and the bank’s reserve account at the Fed. Assets minus liabilities equal net worth, the value of the bank. As a simple example, suppose that the bank is required to hold reserves in the amount of 10 percent of its deposits. Remember that the supply of money (M1) is the total of the public’s bank accounts and currency in circulation, where bank accounts are the greater part of the money supply. Currency in circulation includes only currency held by the public.

Here is how the Fed exercises control over the money supply. The Fed (through its government bond desk in New York) purchases a $\$ 10,000$ government bond from a bond dealer using a check written on itself, and the dealer deposits the check in his/her bank. The bank presents the check to the Fed and the Fed adds that amount to the bank’s reserve account at the Fed. This transaction has increased the bank’s deposits (liabilities) and reserves (assets) by $\$ 10,000$. The bank now has the ability to make more loans to customers. In fact, the bank can make a loan of $\$ 9,000$ to a customer, leaving $\$ 1,000$ (10 percent) in its reserve account. The bank places the $\$ 9,000$ into the customer’s checking account, and the customer spends the money by writing a check. All of the bank’s accounts are in balance. Loans are up by $\$ 9,000$, deposits are up by the original $\$ 10,000$, and reserves are up by $\$ 1,000$ ( 10 percent of the increase in deposits). The money supply has increased by $\$ 9,000$ because the check for $\$ 9,000$ is deposited in another bank. Here are the changes in the balance sheet for Bank A.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Comparative advantage

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Comparative advantage

比较优势是贸易的基础,是经济分析的基础,是所有原则教科书都涵盖的主题。本小节包括两种已成功使用的方法。本节没有什么真正的新东西,但我发现这些方法令人满意。我的口头禅是(向莎士比亚道歉):“机会成本,机会成本,一切都是机会成本。”

显然,大卫·李嘉图将比较优势作为贸易基础的论证是天才之举。他的名著(1821 年,第 82 页)的前七章介绍了他的经济模型,其中农业用地以离散数量提供——给定数量的最佳土地,给定数量的次佳土地,等等上。随着人口的增长,必须使用质量较低的土地,从而为质量较高的土地产生地租。土地供应的性质以及随着人口增长而增加地租的趋势阻碍了经济发展。该怎么办?李嘉图想到英国可以专门生产布匹、出口布匹和进口农产品,而不是对农产品进口征收关税(玉米法)。

这是里卡多的例子,稍作修改。英国和葡萄牙生产葡萄酒和布料。两国生产“一船”酒和布所需的工人数量如下:

请注意,里卡多假设葡萄牙在两种产品中都具有绝对优势,因为生产任何一种产品所需的葡萄牙工人都比英国少(尽管到 1819 年,英国是世界上主要的布料制造商)​​。由于两国以酒换布(和布换酒)的机会成本不同,因此存在“交易空间”。这是交易。
假设葡萄牙将 80 名工人从布料生产转向葡萄酒生产,从而以机会成本获得一船葡萄酒8/9一船布。布的机会成本是9/8成船的酒。

同时,假设英国将 100 名工人从葡萄酒生产转向布料生产,从而以机会成本获得一船布料5/6一船酒。布的机会成本是6/5成船的布。

假设(易货)汇率是一船酒换一船布。葡萄牙运送一船酒,英国运送一船布。我想象一艘船来回航行。葡萄牙现在拥有原始数量的布料和葡萄酒,而英格兰现在也拥有原始数量的布料和葡萄酒。但是再看一遍。葡萄牙获得了 10 名工人的产出。而英格兰则获得了 20 名工人的产出。这两个国家都在工人数量没有变化的情况下获得了产出,因为每个国家都专注于机会成本较低的产品。

整个业务依赖于找到一个两国都能获利的汇率。假设一船酒换一船布的汇率。但鉴于两国的机会成本不同,这样的汇率(实际上是一系列汇率)是存在的,两国有强烈的动机去寻找达成交易的汇率。

李嘉图的例子很有说服力,但另一种方法明确使用了生产可能性边界。请参阅图 1.5。英格兰的生产可能性边界标记为 E,葡萄牙的标记为磷. 外线是它们的组合生产可能性曲线。绘制该图是为了让两国都没有绝对优势,但两国的机会成本不同。英国在布匹方面具有比较优势,而葡萄牙在葡萄酒方面具有比较优势。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|International trade policy

国际贸易政策有两个基本部分——汇率政策和直接影响进出口的政策。依次考虑这些。

汇率政策有三种基本类型。第一个是浮动汇率,其汇率由市场对一种货币的供求决定,如图 1.4 所示。但是,国家中央银行可以改变利率,从而通过改变生息资产的供求关系来影响汇率。第三个政策是与世界其他地区保持固定汇率。在这种情况下,中央银行必须买入或卖出货币以维持相同的汇率。换句话说,中央银行进入市场并改变其本国货币的供求关系。如果中央银行希望降低汇率(本币对其他货币的价格),它会在国际市场上出售本币。为了提高汇率,

使用汇率政策可以实现什么目标?如果该国希望扩大出口,中央银行可以将汇率保持在较低水平。例如,中国实际上在 1997 年到 2006 年左右就实行了这样的政策。然而,随着出口行业的扩大,产出价格最终可能会上涨。2006年以来,人民币的价格从1美元8元左右涨到6元左右,推高了中国商品的价格。

涉及直接干预进出口市场的贸易政策呢?对进口市场的干预通常以关税的形式出现,即对进口商品征税。商品价格上涨到购买者,政府从销售这些商品的公司收取税收。实际上,税收是由消费者支付的。出口国的公司看到出口数量减少,他们销售产品的价格可能没有变化。如果关税针对某个特定出口国的出口,这些产品的购买者可以转向从其他国家进口。在征收关税的国家生产相同产品的国内公司也可能会看到它们的产出增加。

其他与进口有关的贸易政策包括进口配额以及健康和安全法规。这些政策也减少了进口,但政府没有税收。国内企业将看到产出增加。

贸易政策也可以针对出口。出口补贴用于促进出口。这种补贴可能允许出口公司以低于实际生产成本的价格在出口市场上销售。世界贸易组织 (WTO) 等国际组织试图将销售限制在低于成本的水平,但证明“倾销”通常很困难。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|how monetary policy works

你需要知道货币供应是如何产生的。自 1913 年以来,美国就有了中央银行,即联邦储备系统(美联储)。英国自 17 世纪以来就有了英格兰银行。经济发达的国家有中央银行。中央银行不是普通银行,而是一个政府机构,肩负两项使命——防止金融恐慌和稳定经济。中央银行通过成为因债权人要求提供资金而资金短缺的金融机构的“最后贷款人”,从而防止(或至少减轻)金融恐慌。正如美联储前主席本·伯南克 (Ben Bernanke, 2013, 2015) 所解释的那样,美联储在 2008 年开始的金融危机期间做出了大量此类努力,这些行动将在本章中讨论14.
中央银行试图通过使用货币政策来稳定经济。这是典型银行的简化资产负债表——称之为银行 A。

基本的资产负债表方程是资产等于负债加上净值(一个=大号+西北)。银行接受存款,包括支票账户和定期存款(存款证明),并向客户提供贷款,例如房屋抵押贷款和企业贷款。银行还投资于政府债券并持有准备金。想想它在美国是如何运作的。银行需要持有一定数量的准备金,美联储有责任确保这一要求得到满足。准备金包括手头现金(称为金库现金)和银行在美联储的准备金账户。资产减去负债等于净值,即银行的价值。举个简单的例子,假设银行需要持有相当于其存款 10% 的准备金。请记住,货币供应量(M1)是公众银行账户和流通货币的总和,其中银行账户是货币供应量的较大部分。

以下是美联储如何控制货币供应。美联储(通过其在纽约的政府债券服务台)购买$10,000债券交易商使用自己写的支票从债券交易商处购买政府债券,交易商将支票存入其银行。银行将支票提交给美联储,美联储将该金额添加到银行在美联储的准备金账户中。该交易使银行的存款(负债)和准备金(资产)增加了$10,000. 银行现在有能力向客户提供更多贷款。事实上,银行可以贷款$9,000给客户,离开$1,000(10%) 在其储备账户中。银行将$9,000存入客户的支票账户,客户通过开支票的方式花钱。银行的所有账户都是余额。贷款增加$9,000, 存款由原来的$10,000,并且储备增加了$1,000(存款增加的 10%)。货币供应量增加了$9,000因为检查$9,000存入另一家银行。以下是银行 A 资产负债表的变化。

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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