### 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|ECON5002

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|The Hicks-Hansen version of Keynesian theory

John R. Hicks (1937) read the General Theory carefully and invented the graphical presentation that has been used to teach Keynes to students ever since. This HicksHansen version of Keynesian theory is known as the neoclassical synthesis. The neoclassical synthesis combines Keynesian and classical theory. You know that Keynesian theory shows that the government must provide fiscal and monetary stimulus to bring an economy to full employment. However, once full employment has been reached, the economy can rely on market forces to allocate resources efficiently, as argued by the classical economists.

For Hicks, the critical feature of the Keynesian theory is the demand for money (in wage units), which as we have seen, is assumed to depend upon the interest rate and real income. But Hicks asserts that Keynes introduced a “special theory” in which the demand for money does not depend upon income – only the interest rate. In this case, the interest rate is determined as shown in Figure $2.4$, and investment, employment, and income are determined in sequence. As Hicks (1937, p. 153) put it,

It is this system of equations which yields the startling conclusion, that an increase in the inducement to invest, or in the propensity to consume, will not tend to raise the rate of interest, but only to increase employment.

Rather, the “general theory” should include income as a determinant of the demand for money. Equilibrium in the market for money must be consistent with the level of income determined in the model. An increase in income caused by, for example, an increase in the propensity to consume will in general cause the interest rate to increase as well – which in turn will reduce investment, and so on.

Hicks invented a graphical device that is known as the IS-LM model. The price level is assumed to be constant in this model. The full model is shown in Figure 3.1. The diagram on the left shows the demand for and supply of money. The demand for money (at a given interest rate) is presumed to shift upwards when income rises, so three alternative demand schedules for money are shown. The diagram in the middle bottom includes the IS curve from Figure $2.5$. It shows the combinations of income and interest rate at which investment and saving are equal. The other curve, labeled the LM curve, shows the combinations of income and interest rate at which the demand for and supply of money are equal. As the diagram on the left shows, for a given supply of money, an increase in income requires that the interest rate must be higher. An increase in income means that more of the money stock must be used to handle transactions and satisfy the precautionary demand for money. Less money is available to satisfy the speculative demand for money, so the price of holding money – the interest rate – must rise so that households and firms will be content with smaller money balances held for this purpose. LM stands for liquiditymoney, and the LM curve has a positive slope because a higher level of income is consistent with a higher interest rate (except in the range where the interest rate is so low that it does not change with changes in the supply of money).

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。