经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rethinking macroeconomics

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宏观经济学,对国家或地区经济整体行为的研究。它关注的是了解整个经济的事件,如商品和服务的生产总量、失业水平和价格的一般行为。

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我们提供的宏观经济学Macroeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rethinking macroeconomics

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|production possibilities

A simple diagram captures the “what” and “how” questions. Consider Figure 1.1. On the vertical axis we measure units of an all-purpose consumption good, and the horizontal axis is used to chart units of investment goods. Investment goods are things such as plants, equipment, and houses that are used to produce consumption goods in the future. The diagram depicts consumption and investment, because these are basic concepts in macroeconomics. In essence, Figure $1.1$ is showing the options available for the production of goods and services for use now versus the capacity to produce goods and services later – the now-versus-later choice. The curve is called the production possibilities curve.

The diagram is drawn for given supplies of the basic factors of production – land, labor, capital, technology, and entrepreneurship. Any point on the curve shows the maximum amount of consumption goods that can be produced given the indicated amount of investment goods – hence, production possibilities. The curve is drawn with a negative slope because more of one good means that less of the other good can be produced given the resources available. Each and every point on the curve is based on an allocation of the basic factors of production. Suppose one more unit of investment goods is contemplated as shown in Figure 1.1. The curve shows how much consumption goods must be given up – the opportunity cost of investment goods. As the slope is the “rise over the run” of the curve (in this case, the “rise” is negative), the opportunity cost of investment is the slope of the production possibility curve. Furthermore, that increase in investment at the expense of consumption will require some shifting of the basic factors of production from one use to another – a different allocation of resources. For example, some farmers will become construction workers.
The points on the production possibilities curve represent efficient allocations of resources, because more of one good can come only with a reduction in the other good. On the other hand, a point inside the curve (such as point A) is a point of inefficient use of resources, because more output of one or both goods can be achieved by moving to the curve (as shown by the arrow). And a point outside the curve (such as point B) cannot be reached with the available resources. Point B can be reached only if there is some increase in the resources available to the society. How can an increase happen? Increases can occur by an increase in the labor force, by an increase in capital through use of resources to produce investment goods, or by an improvement in the technology of production. But none of that can happen immediately.

There is one more feature of the production possibilities curve to point out. The curve has been drawn bowed out – not a straight line. As shown in Figure $1.1$, the curve says that the opportunity cost of investment goods gets larger as the amount of investment is greater. At the smaller amount of investment goods, the amount of consumption given up is a small amount. But at the larger amount of investment goods, the amount of consumption given up at the margin is larger. Why? The basic idea is that resources vary in their ability to produce the two goods. At the smaller amount of investment, an increase in investment output would be accomplished by moving resources that are adept at producing investment goods away from consumption goods. That would be an efficient way to get it done. However, if the amount of investment already is large, getting more investment goods production requires moving resources out of consumption goods production that are less adept at the new task. But one does the best that is possible to be efficient.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|macroeconomic data

The purpose of the book is to confront the different macroeconomic theories with data. So what data would that be? A conventional set of macroeconomic variables exists, and it will be used here. The annual Economic Report of the President has a very useful appendix that contains the data for the United States in recent decades. The Bank of England provides macroeconomic data for the United Kingdom, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has data for other advanced economies.

The first variable is the measure of the total output of the economy, now called gross domestic product (GDP). This is the dollar value of the final output for a year. For example, one might think that the output of an auto company is simply the dollar value of the final output, the cars and trucks sold. But the auto company has purchased many parts from its suppliers. The final output of the auto company is the value that is added to the parts purchased from other companies and is produced by the labor and services of its plant and equipment employed in the process of turning parts into a car. Furthermore, the parts suppliers purchased materials from firms that produce materials (steel, rubber, aluminum, etc.). The final output of a parts supplier is the value added to the purchased materials by the firm’s labor and capital services. In short, the GDP is the total of value added by the producers in the economy. Alternatively, the GDP is the total amount paid for the services of labor, existing capital equipment (including buildings), and land. In other words, the total final output must equal the income paid to these basic inputs. One bit of terminology – GDP measures the dollar value of total final output produced within the confines of the borders of the nation. Previously the term used was gross national product (GNP), but a change in terminology and measurement was made to eliminate output produced in other countries by U.S. firms.

The measure of GDP we shall use is spending on final goods and services, and spending is broken down into four basic parts; these are consumption, gross investment, government purchases of goods and services, and net exports of goods and services (exports minus imports). Consumption consists of purchases of goods and services by households for current use. It does include some items that will last for some years (clothing, shoes, stoves, home computers, and so on) as well as food, haircuts, and electricity. Consumption can be broken down into nondurable and durable goods. Housing consumption is reckoned as rent paid for the services of housing units – which means that the GDP includes the implicit rent that a homeowner is paying to himself or herself. Households use their disposable personal income (income after taxes) to purchase consumption goods and services. They also save out of disposable personal income.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Balance of payments and foreign exchange markets

The purpose of this subsection is to integrate the balance of payments and the market for foreign exchange. A brief survey of principles of economics textbooks reveals that this integration is not presented. Some texts cover the two topics in two separate chapters. Those that cover both topics in the same chapter do not show how the balance of payments can be depicted on a foreign exchange market diagram. The method presented here has been taught – and learned – by several classes of principles students.
The balance of payments of a nation consists of the current account and the financial account, and the sum of these accounts is zero. The basic rule is money coming in equals money going out. Because sellers in each nation are paid in their own currency, buyers must purchase that currency with their own currency. The main elements of the balance of payments are:Suppose that the home country is the United States and the only foreign country is the European Union (E.U.) (the usual simplifying assumption of a two-country world). The demand for U.S. dollars on the foreign exchange market is expressed by the people of the E.U. and consists of two parts – the demand for U.S. exports of goods and services and the demand to purchase U.S. assets. The price of U.S. dollars is expressed as euros per dollar. The demand curve slopes negatively because a lower price of dollars means that each euro is worth more in these international transactions. The demand for U.S. exports of goods and services shifts when there are changes in E.U. incomes, E.U. population, prices of other goods, preferences, and price expectations. These are the usual suspects for changes in demand. In addition, the demand for U.S. assets shifts when there are changes in interest rates, i.e., rates of return, to assets in the U.S. and the E.U.

The supply of dollars in foreign exchange is expressed by people in the United States and is driven by the demand for E.U. exports of goods and services and for E.U. assets. The supply curve slopes positively because an increase in the price of dollars means that each dollar can buy more euros and thus more E.U. goods and services or assets. Yes, the supply curve of dollars is actually a demand curve, an idea that is counterintuitive and must be explained to students carefully. The shifters of this supply curve are the usual shifters of the demand for goods and services plus the interest rates that determine the demand for E.U. assets. Note that a change in the rate of return to U.S. assets will shift both the supply and demand for dollars in foreign exchange because, say, an increase in the returns to U.S. assets will increase the demand for those assets by investors in both the U.S. and the E.U. The demand for dollars by E.U. investors increases and the supply of dollars by U.S. investors to invest in the E.U. assets declines. Assume that the market for dollars is perfectly competitive. The exchange rate “floats,” as it actually does according to U.S. and E.U. policy. Figure $1.3$ is the basic diagram.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rethinking macroeconomics

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|production possibilities

一个简单的图表捕获了“什么”和“如何”的问题。考虑图 1.1。在纵轴上,我们衡量通用消费品的单位,横轴用于绘制投资品的单位。投资品是未来用于生产消费品的厂房、设备、房屋等。该图描绘了消费和投资,因为它们是宏观经济学的基本概念。本质上,图1.1正在展示可用于生产现在使用的商品和服务的选项与以后生产商品和服务的能力——现在与以后的选择。该曲线称为生产可能性曲线。

该图是针对给定的基本生产要素——土地、劳动力、资本、技术和企业家精神——的供给而绘制的。曲线上的任何点都显示了在指定数量的投资品的情况下可以生产的最大消费品数量——因此,生产可能性。曲线以负斜率绘制,因为更多的一种商品意味着在可用资源的情况下可以生产更少的另一种商品。曲线上的每一点都基于基本生产要素的分配。假设如图 1.1 所示,再考虑一个单位的投资品。曲线显示了必须放弃多少消费品——投资品的机会成本。由于斜率是曲线的“上升”(在这种情况下,“上升”为负),投资的机会成本是生产可能性曲线的斜率。此外,以牺牲消费为代价增加投资将需要将基本生产要素从一种用途转移到另一种用途——一种不同的资源分配方式。例如,一些农民将成为建筑工人。
生产可能性曲线上的点代表资源的有效分配,因为只有减少另一种商品才能获得更多的一种商品。另一方面,曲线内的点(如A点)是资源利用效率低的点,因为向曲线移动可以实现一种或两种商品的更多产出(如箭头所示)。并且可用资源无法到达曲线外的点(例如 B 点)。只有当社会可用资源有所增加时,才能达到 B 点。怎么会增加呢?增加可以通过劳动力的增加、通过使用资源生产投资品而增加资本或通过改进生产技术来实现。但这一切都不会立即发生。

生产可能性曲线还有一个特征需要指出。曲线是弯曲的——不是一条直线。如图1.1,曲线表示投资品的机会成本随着投资量的增加而变大。在投资品较少时,放弃的消费量较小。但投资品数量越大,边际放弃的消费量越大。为什么?基本思想是资源在生产这两种商品的能力上有所不同。在较小的投资量下,投资产出的增加将通过将擅长生产投资品的资源从消费品中转移出来来实现。这将是完成它的有效方法。但是,如果投资量已经很大,要获得更多的投资品生产,就需要将资源从不擅长新任务的消费品生产中转移出来。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|macroeconomic data

本书的目的是用数据来对抗不同的宏观经济理论。那会是什么数据呢?存在一组常规的宏观经济变量,将在此处使用。总统的年度经济报告有一个非常有用的附录,其中包含美国近几十年来的数据。英格兰银行提供英国的宏观经济数据,经济合作与发展组织 (OECD) 提供其他发达经济体的数据。

第一个变量是衡量经济总产出的指标,现在称为国内生产总值 (GDP)。这是一年最终产出的美元价值。例如,人们可能会认为一家汽车公司的产出只是最终产出的美元价值,即售出的汽车和卡车。但是这家汽车公司已经从供应商那里购买了许多零件。汽车公司的最终产出是从其他公司购买的零件所增加的价值,它是由将零件变成汽车的过程中使用的工厂和设备的劳动力和服务产生的。此外,零件供应商从生产材料(钢、橡胶、铝等)的公司购买材料。零件供应商的最终产出是公司的劳动力和资本服务为购买的材料增加的价值。简而言之,GDP 是经济体中生产者增加的总价值。或者,GDP 是为劳动力服务、现有资本设备(包括建筑物)和土地支付的总金额。换言之,最终总产出必须等于支付给这些基本投入的收入。一个术语——GDP衡量的是在国家边界范围内产生的最终总产出的美元价值。以前使用的术语是国民生产总值 (GNP),但为了消除美国公司在其他国家生产的产出,改变了术语和衡量标准。最终总产出必须等于支付给这些基本投入的收入。一个术语——GDP衡量的是在国家边界范围内产生的最终总产出的美元价值。以前使用的术语是国民生产总值 (GNP),但为了消除美国公司在其他国家生产的产出,改变了术语和衡量标准。最终总产出必须等于支付给这些基本投入的收入。一个术语——GDP衡量的是在国家边界范围内产生的最终总产出的美元价值。以前使用的术语是国民生产总值 (GNP),但为了消除美国公司在其他国家生产的产出,改变了术语和衡量标准。

我们将使用的GDP衡量标准是最终商品和服务的支出,支出分为四个基本部分;它们是消费、总投资、政府购买的商品和服务,以及商品和服务的净出口(出口减去进口)。消费包括家庭为当前使用而购买的商品和服务。它确实包括一些可以使用几年的物品(衣服、鞋子、炉子、家用电脑等)以及食物、理发和电力。消费可以分为非耐用品和耐用品。住房消费被视为为住房单位服务支付的租金——这意味着 GDP 包括房主向自己支付的隐性租金。家庭使用他们的可支配个人收入(税后收入)购买消费品和服务。他们还从可支配的个人收入中储蓄。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Balance of payments and foreign exchange markets

本小节的目的是整合国际收支和外汇市场。对经济学教科书原理的简要调查表明,没有提出这种整合。一些文本在两个单独的章节中涵盖了这两个主题。在同一章中涵盖这两个主题的内容没有显示如何在外汇市场图表上描绘国际收支平衡。这里介绍的方法已被几类原则学生教授和学习。
一个国家的国际收支由经常账户和金融账户组成,这些账户的总和为零。基本规则是进来的钱等于出去的钱。因为每个国家的卖家都以自己的货币支付,所以买家必须用自己的货币购买该货币。国际收支的主要要素是:假设母国是美国,唯一的外国是欧盟(EU)(两国世界的通常简化假设)。外汇市场对美元的需求由欧盟民众表达,由对美国商品和服务出口的需求和购买美国资产的需求两部分组成。美元的价格以欧元兑美元表示。需求曲线负斜率是因为美元价格较低意味着在这些国际交易中每一欧元的价值更高。当欧盟收入、欧盟人口、其他商品价格、偏好和价格预期发生变化时,对美国商品和服务出口的需求也会发生变化。这些是需求变化的常见嫌疑人。此外,当利率(即收益率)发生变化时,对美国资产的需求也会转移到美国和欧盟的资产上。

美元的外汇供应由美国人民表示,并由对欧盟商品和服务出口以及对欧盟资产的需求驱动。供给曲线正倾斜,因为美元价格的上涨意味着每一美元可以购买更多的欧元,从而购买更多的欧盟商品和服务或资产。是的,美元的供给曲线实际上是一条需求曲线,这是一个违反直觉的想法,必须向学生仔细解释。这条供给曲线的移动器通常是商品和服务需求的移动器加上决定欧盟资产需求的利率。请注意,美国资产回报率的变化将改变美元外汇的供求关系,因为美国的回报率增加 资产将增加美国和欧盟投资者对这些资产的需求 欧盟投资者对美元的需求增加,美国投资者投资欧盟资产的美元供应减少。假设美元市场是完全竞争的。根据美国和欧盟的政策,汇率实际上是“浮动的”。数字1.3是基本图。

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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