### 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rethinking macroeconomics

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|production possibilities

A simple diagram captures the “what” and “how” questions. Consider Figure 1.1. On the vertical axis we measure units of an all-purpose consumption good, and the horizontal axis is used to chart units of investment goods. Investment goods are things such as plants, equipment, and houses that are used to produce consumption goods in the future. The diagram depicts consumption and investment, because these are basic concepts in macroeconomics. In essence, Figure $1.1$ is showing the options available for the production of goods and services for use now versus the capacity to produce goods and services later – the now-versus-later choice. The curve is called the production possibilities curve.

The diagram is drawn for given supplies of the basic factors of production – land, labor, capital, technology, and entrepreneurship. Any point on the curve shows the maximum amount of consumption goods that can be produced given the indicated amount of investment goods – hence, production possibilities. The curve is drawn with a negative slope because more of one good means that less of the other good can be produced given the resources available. Each and every point on the curve is based on an allocation of the basic factors of production. Suppose one more unit of investment goods is contemplated as shown in Figure 1.1. The curve shows how much consumption goods must be given up – the opportunity cost of investment goods. As the slope is the “rise over the run” of the curve (in this case, the “rise” is negative), the opportunity cost of investment is the slope of the production possibility curve. Furthermore, that increase in investment at the expense of consumption will require some shifting of the basic factors of production from one use to another – a different allocation of resources. For example, some farmers will become construction workers.
The points on the production possibilities curve represent efficient allocations of resources, because more of one good can come only with a reduction in the other good. On the other hand, a point inside the curve (such as point A) is a point of inefficient use of resources, because more output of one or both goods can be achieved by moving to the curve (as shown by the arrow). And a point outside the curve (such as point B) cannot be reached with the available resources. Point B can be reached only if there is some increase in the resources available to the society. How can an increase happen? Increases can occur by an increase in the labor force, by an increase in capital through use of resources to produce investment goods, or by an improvement in the technology of production. But none of that can happen immediately.

There is one more feature of the production possibilities curve to point out. The curve has been drawn bowed out – not a straight line. As shown in Figure $1.1$, the curve says that the opportunity cost of investment goods gets larger as the amount of investment is greater. At the smaller amount of investment goods, the amount of consumption given up is a small amount. But at the larger amount of investment goods, the amount of consumption given up at the margin is larger. Why? The basic idea is that resources vary in their ability to produce the two goods. At the smaller amount of investment, an increase in investment output would be accomplished by moving resources that are adept at producing investment goods away from consumption goods. That would be an efficient way to get it done. However, if the amount of investment already is large, getting more investment goods production requires moving resources out of consumption goods production that are less adept at the new task. But one does the best that is possible to be efficient.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|macroeconomic data

The purpose of the book is to confront the different macroeconomic theories with data. So what data would that be? A conventional set of macroeconomic variables exists, and it will be used here. The annual Economic Report of the President has a very useful appendix that contains the data for the United States in recent decades. The Bank of England provides macroeconomic data for the United Kingdom, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has data for other advanced economies.

The first variable is the measure of the total output of the economy, now called gross domestic product (GDP). This is the dollar value of the final output for a year. For example, one might think that the output of an auto company is simply the dollar value of the final output, the cars and trucks sold. But the auto company has purchased many parts from its suppliers. The final output of the auto company is the value that is added to the parts purchased from other companies and is produced by the labor and services of its plant and equipment employed in the process of turning parts into a car. Furthermore, the parts suppliers purchased materials from firms that produce materials (steel, rubber, aluminum, etc.). The final output of a parts supplier is the value added to the purchased materials by the firm’s labor and capital services. In short, the GDP is the total of value added by the producers in the economy. Alternatively, the GDP is the total amount paid for the services of labor, existing capital equipment (including buildings), and land. In other words, the total final output must equal the income paid to these basic inputs. One bit of terminology – GDP measures the dollar value of total final output produced within the confines of the borders of the nation. Previously the term used was gross national product (GNP), but a change in terminology and measurement was made to eliminate output produced in other countries by U.S. firms.

The measure of GDP we shall use is spending on final goods and services, and spending is broken down into four basic parts; these are consumption, gross investment, government purchases of goods and services, and net exports of goods and services (exports minus imports). Consumption consists of purchases of goods and services by households for current use. It does include some items that will last for some years (clothing, shoes, stoves, home computers, and so on) as well as food, haircuts, and electricity. Consumption can be broken down into nondurable and durable goods. Housing consumption is reckoned as rent paid for the services of housing units – which means that the GDP includes the implicit rent that a homeowner is paying to himself or herself. Households use their disposable personal income (income after taxes) to purchase consumption goods and services. They also save out of disposable personal income.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Balance of payments and foreign exchange markets

The purpose of this subsection is to integrate the balance of payments and the market for foreign exchange. A brief survey of principles of economics textbooks reveals that this integration is not presented. Some texts cover the two topics in two separate chapters. Those that cover both topics in the same chapter do not show how the balance of payments can be depicted on a foreign exchange market diagram. The method presented here has been taught – and learned – by several classes of principles students.
The balance of payments of a nation consists of the current account and the financial account, and the sum of these accounts is zero. The basic rule is money coming in equals money going out. Because sellers in each nation are paid in their own currency, buyers must purchase that currency with their own currency. The main elements of the balance of payments are:Suppose that the home country is the United States and the only foreign country is the European Union (E.U.) (the usual simplifying assumption of a two-country world). The demand for U.S. dollars on the foreign exchange market is expressed by the people of the E.U. and consists of two parts – the demand for U.S. exports of goods and services and the demand to purchase U.S. assets. The price of U.S. dollars is expressed as euros per dollar. The demand curve slopes negatively because a lower price of dollars means that each euro is worth more in these international transactions. The demand for U.S. exports of goods and services shifts when there are changes in E.U. incomes, E.U. population, prices of other goods, preferences, and price expectations. These are the usual suspects for changes in demand. In addition, the demand for U.S. assets shifts when there are changes in interest rates, i.e., rates of return, to assets in the U.S. and the E.U.

The supply of dollars in foreign exchange is expressed by people in the United States and is driven by the demand for E.U. exports of goods and services and for E.U. assets. The supply curve slopes positively because an increase in the price of dollars means that each dollar can buy more euros and thus more E.U. goods and services or assets. Yes, the supply curve of dollars is actually a demand curve, an idea that is counterintuitive and must be explained to students carefully. The shifters of this supply curve are the usual shifters of the demand for goods and services plus the interest rates that determine the demand for E.U. assets. Note that a change in the rate of return to U.S. assets will shift both the supply and demand for dollars in foreign exchange because, say, an increase in the returns to U.S. assets will increase the demand for those assets by investors in both the U.S. and the E.U. The demand for dollars by E.U. investors increases and the supply of dollars by U.S. investors to invest in the E.U. assets declines. Assume that the market for dollars is perfectly competitive. The exchange rate “floats,” as it actually does according to U.S. and E.U. policy. Figure $1.3$ is the basic diagram.

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## MATLAB代写

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