经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Ten Principles of Economics

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Ten Principles of Economics

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|How People Make Decisions

There is no mystery to what an economy is. Whether we are talking about the economy of Los Angeles, the United States, or the whole world, an economy is just a group of people dealing with one another as they go about their lives. Because the behavior of an economy reflects the behavior of the individuals who make up the economy, our first four principles concern individual decision making.
1-1a Principle 1: People Face Trade-Offs
You may have heard the old saying, “There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch.” Grammar aside, there is much truth to this adage. To get something that we like, we usually have to give up something else that we also like. Making decisions requires trading off one goal against another.

Consider a student who must decide how to allocate her most valuable resource-her time. She can spend all of her time studying economics, spend all of it studying psychology, or divide it between the two fields. For every hour she studies one subject, she gives up an hour she could have used studying the other. And for every hour she spends studying, she gives up an hour she could have spent napping, bike riding, playing video games, or working at her part-time job for some extra spending money.

Consider parents deciding how to spend their family income. They can buy food, clothing, or a family vacation. Or they can save some of their income for retirement or their children’s college education. When they choose to spend an extra dollar on one of these goods, they have one less dollar to spend on some other good.

When people are grouped into societies, they face different kinds of trade-offs. One classic trade-off is between “guns and butter.” The more a society spends on national defense (guns) to protect itself from foreign aggressors, the less it can spend on consumer goods (butter) to raise its standard of living. Also important

in modern society is the trade-off between a clean environment and a high level of income. Laws that require firms to reduce pollution raise the cost of producing goods and services. Because of these higher costs, the firms end up earning smaller profits, paying lower wages, charging higher prices, or doing some combination of these three. Thus, while pollution regulations yield a cleaner environment and the improved health that comes with it, this benefit comes at the cost of reducing the well-being of the regulated firms’ owners, workers, and customers.

Another trade-off society faces is between efficiency and equality. Efficiency means that society is getting the maximum benefits from its scarce resources. Equality means that those benefits are distributed uniformly among society’s members. In other words, efficiency refers to the size of the economic pie, and equality refers to how the pie is divided into individual slices.

When government policies are designed, these two goals often conflict. Consider, for instance, policies aimed at equalizing the distribution of economic well-being. Some of these policies, such as the welfare system or unemployment insurance, try to help the members of society who are most in need. Others, such as the individual income tax, ask the financially successful to contribute more than others to support the government. Though these policies achieve greater equality, they reduce efficiency. When the government redistributes income from the rich to the poor, it reduces the reward for working hard; as a result, people work less and produce fewer goods and services. In other words, when the government tries to cut the economic pie into more equal slices, the pie shrinks.

Recognizing that people face trade-offs does not by itself tell us what decisions they will or should make. A student should not abandon the study of psychology just because doing so would increase the time available for the study of economics. Society should not stop protecting the environment just because environmental regulations would reduce our material standard of living. The government should not ignore the poor just because helping them would distort work incentives. Nonetheless, people are likely to make good decisions only if they understand the options available to them. Our study of economics, therefore, starts by acknowledging life’s trade-offs.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|What You Give Up to Get It

Because people face trade-offs, making decisions requires comparing the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action. In many cases, however, the cost of an action is not as obvious as it might first appear.

Consider the decision to go to college. The main benefits are intellectual enrichment and a lifetime of better job opportunities. But what are the costs? To answer this question, you might be tempted to add up the money you spend on tuition, books, room, and board. Yet this total does not truly represent what you give up to spend a year in college.

This calculation has two problems. First, it includes some things that are not really costs of going to college. Even if you quit school, you need a place to sleep and food to eat. Room and board are costs of going to college only to the extent that they exceed the cost of living and eating at home or in your own apartment. Second, this calculation ignores the largest cost of going to college-your time. When you spend a year listening to lectures, reading textbooks, and writing papers, you cannot spend that time working at a job and earning money. For most students, the earnings they give up to attend school are the largest cost of their education.

The opportunity cost of an item is what you give up to get that item. When making any decision, decision makers should take into account the opportunity costs of each possible action. In fact, they usually do. College athletes who can earn millions dropping out of school and playing professional sports are well aware that their opportunity cost of attending college is very high. Not surprisingly, they often decide that the benefit of a college education is not worth the cost.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rational People Think at the Margin

Economists normally assume that people are rational. Rational people systematically and purposefully do the best they can to achieve their objectives, given the available opportunities. As you study economics, you will encounter firms that decide how many workers to hire and how much product to make and sell to maximize profits. You will also encounter individuals who decide how much time to spend working and what goods and services to buy with the resulting income to achieve the highest possible level of satisfaction.

Rational people know that decisions in life are rarely black and white but often involve shades of gray. At dinnertime, you don’t ask yourself “Should I fast or eat like a pig?” More likely, the question you face is “Should I take that extra spoonful of mashed potatoes?” When exams roll around, your decision is not between blowing them off and studying 24 hours a day but whether to spend an extra hour reviewing your notes instead of playing video games. Economists use the term marginal change to describe a small incremental adjustment to an existing plan of action. Keep in mind that margin means “edge,” so marginal changes are adjustments around the edges of what you are doing. Rational people make decisions by comparing marginal benefits and marginal costs.

For example, suppose you are considering watching a movie tonight. You pay $\$ 40$ a month for a movie streaming service that gives you unlimited access to its film library, and you typically watch 8 movies a month. What cost should you take into account when deciding whether to stream another movie? You might at first think the answer is $\$ 40 / 8$, or $\$ 5$, which is the average cost of a movie. More relevant for your decision, however, is the marginal cost – the extra cost that you would incur by streaming another film. Here, the marginal cost is zero because you pay the same $\$ 40$ for the service regardless of how many movies you stream. In other words, at the margin, streaming a movie is free. The only cost of watching a movie tonight is the time it takes away from other activities, such as working at a job or (better yet) reading this textbook.

Thinking at the margin also works for business decisions. Consider an airline deciding how much to charge passengers who fly standby. Suppose that flying a 200 -seat plane across the United States costs the airline $\$ 100,000$. The average cost of each seat is $\$ 500(\$ 100,000 / 200)$. One might be tempted to conclude that the airline should never sell a ticket for less than $\$ 500$. But imagine that a plane is about to take off with 10 empty seats and a standby passenger waiting at the gate is willing to pay $\$ 300$ for a seat. Should the airline sell the ticket? Of course it should. If the plane has empty seats, the cost of adding one more passenger is tiny. The average cost of flying a passenger is $\$ 500$, but the marginal cost is merely the cost of the can of soda that the extra passenger will consume and the small bit of jet fuel needed to carry the extra passenger’s weight. As long as the standby passenger pays more than the marginal cost, selling the ticket is profitable. Thus, a rational airline can increase profits by thinking at the margin.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Ten Principles of Economics


经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|How People Make Decisions

1-1a 原则 1:人们面临取舍








经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|What You Give Up to Get It





经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rational People Think at the Margin


理性的人知道,生活中的决定很少是非黑即白的,但往往涉及灰色阴影。在晚餐时间,你不会问自己“我应该禁食还是像猪一样吃?” 更有可能的是,你面临的问题是“我应该多吃一勺土豆泥吗?” 当考试临近时,你的决定不是在吹毛求疵和全天 24 小时学习之间做出决定,而是是否要多花一个小时复习你的笔记,而不是玩电子游戏。经济学家使用术语边际变化来描述对现有行动计划的小幅增量调整。请记住,边距意味着“边缘”,因此边际变化是围绕您正在做的事情的边缘进行的调整。理性的人通过比较边际收益和边际成本来做出决策。

例如,假设您正在考虑今晚看电影。你付钱$40一个月的电影流媒体服务,您可以无限制地访问其电影库,您通常每月观看 8 部电影。在决定是否播放另一部电影时,您应该考虑什么成本?一开始你可能会认为答案是$40/8, 或者$5,这是一部电影的平均成本。然而,与您的决定更相关的是边际成本——播放另一部电影会产生的额外成本。在这里,边际成本为零,因为您支付相同的费用$40无论您流式传输多少部电影,都可以使用该服务。换句话说,在边缘,流式传输电影是免费的。今晚看电影的唯一成本是它占用了其他活动的时间,例如工作或(更好)阅读这本教科书。

边际思考也适用于商业决策。考虑一家航空公司决定向待命乘客收取多少费用。假设驾驶一架 200 座的飞机飞越美国,航空公司的成本$100,000. 每个座位的平均费用为$500($100,000/200). 人们可能会得出这样的结论:航空公司永远不应该以低于$500. 但是想象一下,一架飞机即将起飞,有 10 个空座位,而在登机口等候的候补乘客愿意付钱$300一个座位。航空公司应该卖票吗?当然应该。如果飞机有空座位,增加一名乘客的成本是微乎其微的。乘坐一名乘客的平均成本是$500,但边际成本仅仅是额外乘客将消耗的一罐汽水的成本,以及承载额外乘客体重所需的少量喷气燃料的成本。只要候补乘客支付的费用超过边际成本,卖票就是有利可图的。因此,理性的航空公司可以通过考虑边际来增加利润。

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术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。



有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。





随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。


多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。


MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。



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