经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Ten Principles of Economics

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宏观经济学,对国家或地区经济整体行为的研究。它关注的是了解整个经济的事件,如商品和服务的生产总量、失业水平和价格的一般行为。

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我们提供的宏观经济学Macroeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Ten Principles of Economics

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|How People Make Decisions

There is no mystery to what an economy is. Whether we are talking about the economy of Los Angeles, the United States, or the whole world, an economy is just a group of people dealing with one another as they go about their lives. Because the behavior of an economy reflects the behavior of the individuals who make up the economy, our first four principles concern individual decision making.
1-1a Principle 1: People Face Trade-Offs
You may have heard the old saying, “There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch.” Grammar aside, there is much truth to this adage. To get something that we like, we usually have to give up something else that we also like. Making decisions requires trading off one goal against another.

Consider a student who must decide how to allocate her most valuable resource-her time. She can spend all of her time studying economics, spend all of it studying psychology, or divide it between the two fields. For every hour she studies one subject, she gives up an hour she could have used studying the other. And for every hour she spends studying, she gives up an hour she could have spent napping, bike riding, playing video games, or working at her part-time job for some extra spending money.

Consider parents deciding how to spend their family income. They can buy food, clothing, or a family vacation. Or they can save some of their income for retirement or their children’s college education. When they choose to spend an extra dollar on one of these goods, they have one less dollar to spend on some other good.

When people are grouped into societies, they face different kinds of trade-offs. One classic trade-off is between “guns and butter.” The more a society spends on national defense (guns) to protect itself from foreign aggressors, the less it can spend on consumer goods (butter) to raise its standard of living. Also important

in modern society is the trade-off between a clean environment and a high level of income. Laws that require firms to reduce pollution raise the cost of producing goods and services. Because of these higher costs, the firms end up earning smaller profits, paying lower wages, charging higher prices, or doing some combination of these three. Thus, while pollution regulations yield a cleaner environment and the improved health that comes with it, this benefit comes at the cost of reducing the well-being of the regulated firms’ owners, workers, and customers.

Another trade-off society faces is between efficiency and equality. Efficiency means that society is getting the maximum benefits from its scarce resources. Equality means that those benefits are distributed uniformly among society’s members. In other words, efficiency refers to the size of the economic pie, and equality refers to how the pie is divided into individual slices.

When government policies are designed, these two goals often conflict. Consider, for instance, policies aimed at equalizing the distribution of economic well-being. Some of these policies, such as the welfare system or unemployment insurance, try to help the members of society who are most in need. Others, such as the individual income tax, ask the financially successful to contribute more than others to support the government. Though these policies achieve greater equality, they reduce efficiency. When the government redistributes income from the rich to the poor, it reduces the reward for working hard; as a result, people work less and produce fewer goods and services. In other words, when the government tries to cut the economic pie into more equal slices, the pie shrinks.

Recognizing that people face trade-offs does not by itself tell us what decisions they will or should make. A student should not abandon the study of psychology just because doing so would increase the time available for the study of economics. Society should not stop protecting the environment just because environmental regulations would reduce our material standard of living. The government should not ignore the poor just because helping them would distort work incentives. Nonetheless, people are likely to make good decisions only if they understand the options available to them. Our study of economics, therefore, starts by acknowledging life’s trade-offs.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|What You Give Up to Get It

Because people face trade-offs, making decisions requires comparing the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action. In many cases, however, the cost of an action is not as obvious as it might first appear.

Consider the decision to go to college. The main benefits are intellectual enrichment and a lifetime of better job opportunities. But what are the costs? To answer this question, you might be tempted to add up the money you spend on tuition, books, room, and board. Yet this total does not truly represent what you give up to spend a year in college.

This calculation has two problems. First, it includes some things that are not really costs of going to college. Even if you quit school, you need a place to sleep and food to eat. Room and board are costs of going to college only to the extent that they exceed the cost of living and eating at home or in your own apartment. Second, this calculation ignores the largest cost of going to college-your time. When you spend a year listening to lectures, reading textbooks, and writing papers, you cannot spend that time working at a job and earning money. For most students, the earnings they give up to attend school are the largest cost of their education.

The opportunity cost of an item is what you give up to get that item. When making any decision, decision makers should take into account the opportunity costs of each possible action. In fact, they usually do. College athletes who can earn millions dropping out of school and playing professional sports are well aware that their opportunity cost of attending college is very high. Not surprisingly, they often decide that the benefit of a college education is not worth the cost.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rational People Think at the Margin

Economists normally assume that people are rational. Rational people systematically and purposefully do the best they can to achieve their objectives, given the available opportunities. As you study economics, you will encounter firms that decide how many workers to hire and how much product to make and sell to maximize profits. You will also encounter individuals who decide how much time to spend working and what goods and services to buy with the resulting income to achieve the highest possible level of satisfaction.

Rational people know that decisions in life are rarely black and white but often involve shades of gray. At dinnertime, you don’t ask yourself “Should I fast or eat like a pig?” More likely, the question you face is “Should I take that extra spoonful of mashed potatoes?” When exams roll around, your decision is not between blowing them off and studying 24 hours a day but whether to spend an extra hour reviewing your notes instead of playing video games. Economists use the term marginal change to describe a small incremental adjustment to an existing plan of action. Keep in mind that margin means “edge,” so marginal changes are adjustments around the edges of what you are doing. Rational people make decisions by comparing marginal benefits and marginal costs.

For example, suppose you are considering watching a movie tonight. You pay $\$ 40$ a month for a movie streaming service that gives you unlimited access to its film library, and you typically watch 8 movies a month. What cost should you take into account when deciding whether to stream another movie? You might at first think the answer is $\$ 40 / 8$, or $\$ 5$, which is the average cost of a movie. More relevant for your decision, however, is the marginal cost – the extra cost that you would incur by streaming another film. Here, the marginal cost is zero because you pay the same $\$ 40$ for the service regardless of how many movies you stream. In other words, at the margin, streaming a movie is free. The only cost of watching a movie tonight is the time it takes away from other activities, such as working at a job or (better yet) reading this textbook.

Thinking at the margin also works for business decisions. Consider an airline deciding how much to charge passengers who fly standby. Suppose that flying a 200 -seat plane across the United States costs the airline $\$ 100,000$. The average cost of each seat is $\$ 500(\$ 100,000 / 200)$. One might be tempted to conclude that the airline should never sell a ticket for less than $\$ 500$. But imagine that a plane is about to take off with 10 empty seats and a standby passenger waiting at the gate is willing to pay $\$ 300$ for a seat. Should the airline sell the ticket? Of course it should. If the plane has empty seats, the cost of adding one more passenger is tiny. The average cost of flying a passenger is $\$ 500$, but the marginal cost is merely the cost of the can of soda that the extra passenger will consume and the small bit of jet fuel needed to carry the extra passenger’s weight. As long as the standby passenger pays more than the marginal cost, selling the ticket is profitable. Thus, a rational airline can increase profits by thinking at the margin.

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Ten Principles of Economics

宏观经济学代考

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|How People Make Decisions

经济是什么并不神秘。无论我们谈论的是洛杉矶、美国还是整个世界的经济,经济只是一群人在生活中相互打交道。因为一个经济体的行为反映了构成该经济体的个人的行为,所以我们的前四项原则与个人决策有关。
1-1a 原则 1:人们面临取舍
你可能听说过一句老话:“天下没有免费的午餐”。撇开语法不谈,这句格言有很多道理。为了得到我们喜欢的东西,我们通常不得不放弃我们也喜欢的其他东西。做出决定需要在一个目标与另一个目标之间进行权衡。

考虑一个学生,他必须决定如何分配她最宝贵的资源——她的时间。她可以把所有的时间都花在学习经济学上,也可以把所有的时间都花在学习心理学上,或者在这两个领域之间进行划分。她每学习一门学科,就会放弃一个本可以用来学习另一门学科的小时。每花一个小时学习,她就会放弃一个小时,她本来可以用来打盹、骑自行车、玩电子游戏或从事兼职工作以获得额外的零花钱。

考虑父母决定如何花掉他们的家庭收入。他们可以购买食物、衣服或家庭度假。或者他们可以为退休或孩子的大学教育节省部分收入。当他们选择在其中一种商品上多花一美元时,他们就可以少花一美元购买其他商品。

当人们被分组到社会中时,他们面临着不同类型的权衡。一个经典的权衡是在“枪和黄油”之间。一个社会在国防(枪支)上花费越多以保护自己免受外国侵略者的侵害,它在消费品(黄油)上的花费就越少,以提高其生活水平。也很重要

现代社会是清洁环境和高收入之间的取舍。要求企业减少污染的法律提高了生产商品和服务的成本。由于这些更高的成本,公司最终赚取的利润更少,支付的工资更低,收取更高的价格,或者是这三者的某种组合。因此,虽然污染法规带来了更清洁的环境和随之而来的健康改善,但这种好处是以降低受监管公司所有者、工人和客户的福祉为代价的。

社会面临的另一个取舍是效率与平等之间的权衡。效率意味着社会正在从其稀缺资源中获得最大利益。平等意味着这些利益在社会成员之间均匀分配。换句话说,效率是指经济蛋糕的大小,而平等是指如何将蛋糕分成单独的切片。

在设计政府政策时,这两个目标经常发生冲突。例如,考虑旨在平衡经济福利分配的政策。其中一些政策,如福利制度或失业保险,试图帮助最需要帮助的社会成员。其他的,比如个人所得税,要求经济上成功的人比其他人贡献更多的钱来支持政府。尽管这些政策实现了更大的平等,但它们降低了效率。当政府将富人的收入重新分配给穷人时,就会减少努力工作的回报;结果,人们工作更少,生产的商品和服务也更少。换句话说,当政府试图将经济蛋糕切成更均等的部分时,蛋糕就会缩小。

认识到人们面临权衡取舍本身并不能告诉我们他们将或应该做出什么决定。学生不应该仅仅因为这样做会增加学习经济学的时间而放弃学习心理学。社会不应仅仅因为环境法规会降低我们的物质生活水平而停止保护环境。政府不应该仅仅因为帮助他们会扭曲工作激励而忽视穷人。尽管如此,人们只有在了解他们可用的选项时才可能做出正确的决定。因此,我们对经济学的研究首先要承认生活中的取舍。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|What You Give Up to Get It

由于人们面临权衡取舍,因此做出决策需要比较替代行动方案的成本和收益。然而,在许多情况下,一项行动的成本并不像最初看起来那么明显。

考虑上大学的决定。主要好处是智力丰富和一生更好的工作机会。但是成本是多少?要回答这个问题,你可能会想把你花在学费、书本、食宿和伙食费上的钱加起来。然而,这个总数并不能真正代表你为了在大学度过一年而放弃的东西。

这个计算有两个问题。首先,它包括一些不是上大学真正成本的东西。即使你辍学了,你也需要一个睡觉和吃饭的地方。食宿是上大学的费用,只要它们超过在家或在自己公寓里的生活和饮食费用。其次,这个计算忽略了上大学的最大成本——你的时间。当你花一年时间听讲座、阅读教科书和写论文时,你不能把时间花在工作和赚钱上。对于大多数学生来说,他们放弃上学的收入是他们教育的最大成本。

一个项目的机会成本是你为了得到那个项目而放弃的东西。在做出任何决定时,决策者应考虑每项可能行动的机会成本。事实上,他们通常会这样做。辍学和参加职业运动能赚数百万的大学运动员很清楚,他们上大学的机会成本非常高。毫不奇怪,他们经常认为大学教育的好处不值得付出代价。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考|Rational People Think at the Margin

经济学家通常假设人们是理性的。考虑到可用的机会,理性的人会系统地、有目的地尽其所能实现自己的目标。当你学习经济学时,你会遇到那些决定雇佣多少工人以及生产和销售多少产品以实现利润最大化的公司。您还将遇到一些人,他们决定花多少时间工作以及购买什么商品和服务,从而获得最高的满意度。

理性的人知道,生活中的决定很少是非黑即白的,但往往涉及灰色阴影。在晚餐时间,你不会问自己“我应该禁食还是像猪一样吃?” 更有可能的是,你面临的问题是“我应该多吃一勺土豆泥吗?” 当考试临近时,你的决定不是在吹毛求疵和全天 24 小时学习之间做出决定,而是是否要多花一个小时复习你的笔记,而不是玩电子游戏。经济学家使用术语边际变化来描述对现有行动计划的小幅增量调整。请记住,边距意味着“边缘”,因此边际变化是围绕您正在做的事情的边缘进行的调整。理性的人通过比较边际收益和边际成本来做出决策。

例如,假设您正在考虑今晚看电影。你付钱$40一个月的电影流媒体服务,您可以无限制地访问其电影库,您通常每月观看 8 部电影。在决定是否播放另一部电影时,您应该考虑什么成本?一开始你可能会认为答案是$40/8, 或者$5,这是一部电影的平均成本。然而,与您的决定更相关的是边际成本——播放另一部电影会产生的额外成本。在这里,边际成本为零,因为您支付相同的费用$40无论您流式传输多少部电影,都可以使用该服务。换句话说,在边缘,流式传输电影是免费的。今晚看电影的唯一成本是它占用了其他活动的时间,例如工作或(更好)阅读这本教科书。

边际思考也适用于商业决策。考虑一家航空公司决定向待命乘客收取多少费用。假设驾驶一架 200 座的飞机飞越美国,航空公司的成本$100,000. 每个座位的平均费用为$500($100,000/200). 人们可能会得出这样的结论:航空公司永远不应该以低于$500. 但是想象一下,一架飞机即将起飞,有 10 个空座位,而在登机口等候的候补乘客愿意付钱$300一个座位。航空公司应该卖票吗?当然应该。如果飞机有空座位,增加一名乘客的成本是微乎其微的。乘坐一名乘客的平均成本是$500,但边际成本仅仅是额外乘客将消耗的一罐汽水的成本,以及承载额外乘客体重所需的少量喷气燃料的成本。只要候补乘客支付的费用超过边际成本,卖票就是有利可图的。因此,理性的航空公司可以通过考虑边际来增加利润。

经济代写|宏观经济学代写Macroeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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