### 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|The Unemployment Rate and Its Weaknesses

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等楖率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|The Unemployment Rate and Its Weaknesses

The classical approach discussed in the previous section considers that, given the adjustment of real wages, the economy will always be in full employment (at the level of GDP of full employment), although unemployment is an obvious phenomenon in the real world. How can we understand this apparent contradiction?

To begin with, it is important to note that part of unemployment corresponds to the normal rotation in the labor market, which lies behind the natural rate of unemployment. This unemployment rate is associated with the time it takes to bring together an employer who offers a job with an individual who seeks work according to his professional skills.

This time varies with the institutional characteristics of labor markets, such as social protection laws (e.g., a minimum wage law) and the bargaining power of labor unions, all of which raise hiring and dismissal costs, making the process of wage determination less flexible. The natural rate of unemployment prevails even in an economy where wages are completely flexible, but in general, the more flexible the process of wage determination, the lower this rate will be. Minimum wages, for example, although intended to guarantee a minimum standard of living for dependent workers, if higher than the market wage, can be a source of unemployment. This is particularly true in countries where the minimum wage is above the productivity of workers.

Markets where labor flows freely, that is, markets in which there are very few obstacles to hiring or firing workers, have lower unemployment rates than those in which strict regulations remain in place. The World Bank has developed an index that measures various aspects of the functioning of labor markets around the world. According to this index, countries such as the United States, Singapore, and Hong Kong have highly flexible labor markets, while countries such as Spain and France (among other European countries) have more rigid labor markets, notwithstanding the recent efforts of President Macron to increase flexibility.

Latin American countries also tend to show greater rigidities, as in the case of Argentina and Venezuela, where minimum wages have tended to be above the productivity of their workers. This has led to double-digit unemployment rates over the last few decades. Excessive labor regulations, in the end, lead workers to employment in the informal sector, where working conditions are more precarious. On the other hand, the evidence is mixed in the cases of Chile and Peru, which have a minimum wage closer to worker productivity than other countries in Latin America but still maintain high dismissal costs.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|WHY AND HOW DO COUNTRIES GROW

The process of economic growth is defined as the sustained increase in the output of a country or region. It is usually measured as the increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) over a period of time, which could be a few years or even decades.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|Modern Economic Growth

• 在发展中的经济体中，农业部门在经济中的相对规模趋于下降。因此，尽管在 1810 年，70% 的美国劳动力从事农业，但这个数字现在只有 1%。
• 在加速增长的早期阶段，工业部门快速增长，达到顶峰，然后是其份额

• 另一种发展模式是城市化，定义为人口集中在相对较大和密集的定居点。在智利，1865 年超过 70% 的人口生活在农村地区。到 1907 年，城市人口占总人口的 43%，到 2015 年，87% 的人口居住在城市地区。1880 年，全世界的城市人口约为 8%。在世界范围内，城市化率在 1990 年左右的某个时间点在历史上首次超过 50%。城市的增长是农业衰退以及工业和服务业增长的结果。

## 广义线性模型代考

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。