### 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|Unemployment

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|Unemployment

The unemployment rate is an indication of the proportion of people in the total workforce who are unemployed and actively looking for a job.

The short-run movements of the unemployment rate are related to fluctuations in the business cycle. Production reductions are associated with sudden increases in the unemployment rate, while increases in production are accompanied by gradual reductions in the unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is also related to flexibility in the labor market, or how easy it is to hire, fire, and retrain workers: more flexible labor markets are associated with more job creation.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|Inflation

Inflation measures the percentage change in the general price level of an economy-how much more money is required to buy similar goods over time. The measure of inflation is the variation in the consumer price index, which is the average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services. In general, countries aim to have a low and stable annual inflation rate, normally around $2-3$ percent. Since price increases may actually be due to quality improvements or the omission of substitution effects in consumption (when consumers facing price increase change their usual consumption for cheaper options), inflation tends to be overestimated, which explains why the targeted inflation rate is usually higher than 0 percent Moreover, some economists argue that fixing a 0 percent inflation

goal is too risky, since negative inflation rates (normally called deflation) are associated with adverse economic effects, and that a moderate rate of inflation facilitates the adjustment of consumer prices and wages.

Over time, the fluctuations in inflation raise important issues, which become even more complicated when inflation rates are compared internationally. As we will see further on in this book, high inflation rates often occur when a government needs to print more money to cover large budget deficits. If an economy suddenly has twice as many dollars as it did the day before, the value of one of those dollars goes down to 50 cents. We discuss this phenomenon in chapter 6 .

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|Economists differentiate

Economists differentiate between two types of GDP: nominal and real. Nominal GDP measures the value of goods and services according to their current market price. Real GDP measures the physical volume of production for a given period using the prices of a base year.

Note that if the prices of all goods double but physical production remains constant, the measure of nominal GDP doubles, while real GDP remains the same. This is because price variations do not affect physical production.
Also note that although GDP growth may be positive over a long period, it may also show rises and falls over a shorter period. Such short-term fluctuations (expansions and contractions) in the economy are known as business or economic cycles. The moment of maximum output expansion within a cycle is referred to as its peak, while the lowest point is referred to as its trough. A complete economic cycle is measured from one trough to the next (figure 1).

When GDP is rising, the economy is said to be expanding, and when GDP is falling, the economy is said to be contracting. A contraction is signaled by the fall from a peak to a trough; an expansion is the rise from a trough to a peak.

## 经济代写|宏观经济学作业代写Macroeconomics代考|WHAT IS MACROECONOMICS

• 为什么一个国家会在某个时期变得更富或更穷？例如，如何解释亚洲四小龙（香港、新加坡、韩国和台湾）在 1960 年代初至 1990 年代之间的持续高增长率，以及 1978 年后中国的高增长率？为什么韩国在 1960 年代初期比拉丁美洲国家更穷，而今天却是拉丁美洲平均收入的三倍？为什么刚果民主共和国是世界上最贫穷的国家之一，其人均收入在过去 30 年平均每年下降 3% 以上？
• 什么导致失业？为什么各国的失业率差异如此之大？有证据表明即使在欧元区内也存在广泛的失业率：4.3在德国和19.42016 年西班牙的百分比。此外，是什么导致失业率在短时间内在单个国家内大幅波动？例如，在巴西，2004 年的比率为 12%；2011 年下降到 7%，并在 2011 年恢复到 11% 的两位数。2016.

## 广义线性模型代考

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。