### 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON7400

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The starting point: What are the questions

Economic thinking is often closely associated with market thinking, to the point that economics itself might be defined as the science of markets. Considering the connection of markets and values thus involves the crucial question of the normativity of economic discourse. The positions of economists on the normativity of economics are very diverse.

For example, Duncan Foley, in his Adam’s Fallacy, argues that economics is built on the premise that one can indeed separate ‘an economic sphere, with its presumed specific principles of organization, from the much messier, less determinate, and morally more problematic issues of politics, social conflict, and values’ (Foley 2006: xiii). But in fact, Foley claims, ‘the economic way of thinking is just as value-laden as any other way of thinking about society’:

at its most … interesting level, economics is a speculative philosophical discourse, not a deductive or inductive science. … The most important feature of Adam Smith’s work is not what it tells us concretely about how the economy works … but its discussion of how we should feel about capitalist economic life and what attitude it might be reasonable for us to take toward the complicated and contradictory experience it affords us.
(Foley 2006: xiv-xv)
Contrast this assertion with the recent overview of economics suggested by Dani Rodrik who limits the normative content of the market mechanism to the notion of Pareto efficiency:

What are these market values? Deep down there is really only one: efficiency. All that an economist can claim about a market … is that it yields an efficient allocation of resources in a precise sense: there is no feasible way to make some people richer without making others poorer. Any economist who makes a broader argument about the fairness, justice, or moral worth of markets that is based on economics proper is simply engaged in malpractice.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Economics and economists in France

In France, the autonomization and institutionalization of economics (especially from law) has been a lengthy process. ${ }^{3}$ Perhaps ironically, the events of 1968 that shattered the liberal consensus in economics education (prevalent at the law departments) also contributed to the institutional support of a more autonomous and depoliticized, technical economic science. ${ }^{4}$

After the war, the idea of free markets in France was relegated to the background. Most economists and policymakers were convinced that more government intervention was needed to solve the immediate pressing problems of the post-war reconstruction. The state became a central reference point. ‘In 1945 , the state was celebrated in much the same way that the sovereignty of the nation had been celebrated in 1789’ (Rosanvallon 1989: 187). Note that in practice, the state interventionism in that period did not mean the enlargement of the welfare system, but rather, the focus on industrial growth (Prasad 2005).
The French tradition of interventionism and, generally, the confidence in the power of the state to intervene have always played a major role both in the history of ideas and in the policy debate, beginning at least with Colbert. Even the Physiocrats, to whom we attribute the famous formula of laissezfaire, never doubted that the state (the monarch) should overlook the working of the economy and guarantee that the natural law is not violated. Rosanvallon (1989) argues that some sort of interventionism was so natural for France that

Keynesian ideas initially seemed to be an uninteresting commonplace, something unworthy of attention, because domestic policies had been Keynesian avant la lettre.

What role did economics play in this new consensus? After the war, French economic science was a fractured set of very different approaches and traditions. Most conspicuously, neoclassical (‘marginalist’) economists, as well as emerging adherents of Keynes, were not represented in the universities, but rather taught at engineering schools (Grandes écoles) and/or worked as administrators for the government or state corporations (Arena 2000 ; Benamouzig and Lebaron 2018). This, along with the long-standing French tradition of economic engineering (Etner 1987 ), defined their role in French economic thought and policy.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Implementing markets and mediating

Maurice Allais, the key figure in post-war French economic science, incorporated in his work many elements that are significant for our context. He was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in economics for ‘pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources.’ In this formulation, and in its extension, the idea of ‘maximum efficiency’ (‘how to promote the greatest feasible economic efficiency while ensuring a distribution of income that would be generally acceptable” ${ }^{8}$ ), we see the priorities for the economists working in this tradition. ${ }^{9}$

Allais himself formulated what is now known as theorems of welfare economics, linking the competitive market equilibrium with the notion of Pareto efficiency. By no means did this resolve the complex problems of how just the markets can be in their functioning and in their outcomes. However, it reflected the general intuition – very influential in standard economics – that ‘perfect’ markets create some kind of ‘good’ state: the society at large would prefer a Pareto-superior state over a Pareto-inferior one.

The students of Allais developed these ideas in different directions. In particular, Gerard Debreu, who went to work in the United States, made decisive contributions to the general equilibrium theory and became one of the founding fathers of rigorous economic analysis, while Marcel Boiteux, another bright mathematical economist, left ‘pure’ science and engaged in implementing the ideas of Allais in practice. ${ }^{10}$

The paths of these two scholars demonstrate the dual nature of the engineering approach to economic matters in France. On the one hand, French economists tried to be as rigorous as possible in formulating economic problems and in creating formal models to deal with them. On the other hand, they were very much driven by some kind of a normative vision, the one proposed by Allais. In fact, as Drèze (1964) admits in the first important overview of the work done at that time, most of the theory done by these economists was of normative nature.

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The starting point: What are the questions

（Foley 2006：xiv-xv）

## 经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Implementing markets and mediating

Allais 的学生从不同的方向发展了这些想法。尤其是赴美工作的杰拉德·德布鲁对一般均衡理论做出了决定性的贡献，成为严谨经济分析的奠基人之一，而另一位才华横溢的数理经济学家马塞尔·博伊特则离开了“纯”科学和致力于在实践中实施阿莱的思想。10

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