经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The morality of the market process and the normative implications of catallactic competition

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市场经济是一种经济体系,其中有两种力量,即供应和需求,指导商品和服务的生产。市场经济不受中央当局(如政府)控制,而是基于自愿交换。

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The morality of the market process and the normative implications of catallactic competition

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Trust

Trust is a frequently used cultural variable. It is measured by the dichotomous item whether ‘most people can be trusted or whether you cannot be too careful’ from the World Values Survey. Table $2.1$ shows the percentages of people answering yes to the question. Trust appears to be highest in the United States and the lowest in France. The German score is closer to the United States’ score than to the French score. The Global Preferences Survey measures trust by means of the question: ‘I assume that people have only the best intentions.’ The order of these scores is similar to the WVS measure. Only Germany has a lower rank than in the WVS measure.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The free market tradition: A critical assessment

In the wake of the collapse of centrally planned economies in Central and Eastern Europe, one of the most well-respected and outspoken socialists of his time, Robert Heilbroner, wrote in The New Yorker that capitalism had been triumphant over socialism (1989). He later declared that Ludwig von Mises, the great Austrian economist of the twentieth century, ‘had been right’ in his assessment of the inefficiency of socialism (Heilbroner 1990). As early as 1920 , Mises had argued that economic calculation under socialism would be impossible. By abolishing private property in the means of production, exchange ratios in the form of money prices would not emerge to calculate the scarcity of capital goods relative to their alternative consumer uses. Therefore, socialism would be unable to organize production more efficiently compared to capitalism (Mises 1920 [1975], 1922 [1951], 1949 [1966]).

Though the debate over economic calculation under socialism has been settled, Mises had also been right about something else: ‘A social system, however beneficial, cannot work if it is not supported by public opinion’ (1949[1966]: 865). It is because capitalism is still regarded as being inherently unjust ${ }^{2}$ that it has not yet been fully vindicated (Kirzner 1989 [2016]: 5). For example, in a recent article, philosopher Joseph Heath has declared the following: ‘The one thing that can be said with certainty, however, is that the way wages are set in a market economy strikes most people as morally counterintuitive, if not positively unjust’ (Heath 2018: 3).

Indeed, Mises’ critique of socialism was neither a normative critique of the declared ends of socialism (1920 [1975]: 120), nor a normative defence of the moral superiority of capitalism. Rather, it was a positive critique regarding the internal consistency between the stated end of socialism, namely, to deliver advanced material production to the benefit of the least advantaged in society, and the means by which to achieve this end, namely, to abolish private property in the means of production. Mises had been trying to illustrate that socialisn would fail on its own terns, no natter how benevolent or motivated central planners would be about meeting their stated ends. That said, it would be false to conclude that either Mises or the broader free market tradition of which he was part, were silent or otherwise bereft of sympathy towards the economic and social conditions of the poor working class of society. If anything, free market economists from at least the time of Adam Smith have consistently shared the same ends as its critics, including the elimination of exploitation of the poor and least advantaged in society. Smith went so far as to argue that the economic and moral superiority of capitalism was dependent upon eliminating artificial barriers that prevented the least advantaged in society from realizing their full potential.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Cattalactic vs. non-catallactic competition

Before turning to the normative implications of competition in the market process, it is first important to provide a positive analysis of the institutional basis for the market process as well as its consequences. I use the word ‘institutional’ to emphasize that the distinguishing characteristic of the market process is not competition based on laissez-faire. While this statement may seem controversial, a simple ‘unpacking’ of the words ‘competition’ and ‘laissez-faire’ will lead us to understand, first, why such a characterization is highly misleading, and, second, what distinguishes the market process from other forms of economic and social interaction.

First, competition, at its most fundamental level, is nothing more than $a$ process of conflict resolution, and, therefore, is a universal attribute of all human interaction across time and place. Given the fundamental pervasiveness of scarcity, every form of economic and social interaction is inherently competitive in that individuals must resolve how to fulfil their own individual ends, which are always greater than the means to achieve such ends (Alchian 1965; Alchian and Allen 1972). No economic or social system, such as capitalism, communism, or fascism, can abolish scarcity, and therefore cannot eliminate competition. While competition is ubiquitous, the manner in which competition manifests itself is institutionally contingent (Boettke 2012). Therefore, to characterize a free market economy as a ‘competitive system’ implies nothing about the unique manifestation of competition in the market process.

Secondly, this brings us the distinguishing institutional characteristic of a free market economy, which is catallactic competition within a legal framework of well-defined and well-enforced exchangeable private property rights. To argue that a free market economy is a laissez-faire economy implies that markets operate within an institutional vacuum, without any account of the rules governing what forms of competition are sanctioned and those that are prohibited by formal and informal rules. ${ }^{3}$ As F. A. Hayek has stated on this point:
a government that is comparatively inactive but does the wrong things may do much more to cripple the forces of a market economy than one that is more concerned with economic affairs but confines itself to actions which assist the spontaneous forces of the economy.
$(1960: 222)$

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The morality of the market process and the normative implications of catallactic competition

市场经济学代考

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Trust

信任是一个常用的文化变量。它是通过世界价值观调查中的“大多数人是否值得信任,或者你是否不能太小心”来衡量的。桌子2.1显示对问题回答“是”的人的百分比。信任度似乎在美国最高,而在法国最低。德国的得分比法国的得分更接近美国的得分。全球偏好调查通过以下问题衡量信任:“我假设人们只有最好的意图。” 这些分数的顺序类似于 WVS 测量。只有德国的排名低于 WVS 衡量标准。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The free market tradition: A critical assessment

在中欧和东欧中央计划经济崩溃之后,他那个时代最受尊敬和直言不讳的社会主义者之一罗伯特·海尔布罗纳(Robert Heilbroner)在《纽约客》(The New Yorker)上写道,资本主义已经战胜了社会主义(1989)。他后来宣称,20 世纪伟大的奥地利经济学家路德维希·冯·米塞斯(Ludwig von Mises)对社会主义低效率的评估“是正确的”(Heilbroner 1990)。早在 1920 年,米塞斯就认为社会主义下的经济计算是不可能的。通过废除生产资料中的私有财产,货币价格形式的交换比率不会出现来计算资本货物相对于其替代消费用途的稀缺性。所以,

尽管在社会主义下关于经济计算的争论已经解决,但米塞斯在其他方面也是正确的:“一个社会制度,无论多么有益,如果没有公众舆论的支持,它就无法运作”(1949[1966]:865)。这是因为资本主义仍然被认为是天生不公正的2它还没有被完全证明是正确的(Kirzner 1989 [2016]: 5)。例如,在最近的一篇文章中,哲学家约瑟夫·希思(Joseph Heath)宣称:“但是,可以肯定地说,市场经济中工资的设定方式让大多数人感到在道德上违反直觉,如果不是积极的话不公正”(Heath 2018:3)。

事实上,米塞斯对社会主义的批判既不是对社会主义所宣称的目的的规范性批判(1920 [1975]: 120),也不是对资本主义道德优越性的规范性辩护。相反,这是对社会主义的既定目标(即为社会中最弱势群体的利益提供先进的物质生产)与实现这一目标的手段(即废除私有制)之间的内在一致性的积极批判。生产资料中的财产。米塞斯一直试图说明,社会主义会因自身原因而失败,无论中央计划者如何仁慈或积极地实现其既定目标。也就是说,得出这样的结论是错误的:无论是米塞斯还是他所参与的更广泛的自由市场传统,对社会贫穷工人阶级的经济和社会状况保持沉默或以其他方式失去同情。如果有的话,至少从亚当·斯密时代开始的自由市场经济学家一直与批评者有着相同的目标,包括消除对社会中穷人和弱势群体的剥削。斯密甚至争辩说,资本主义的经济和道德优势取决于消除人为的障碍,这些障碍阻碍了社会中最弱势的群体充分发挥其潜力。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Cattalactic vs. non-catallactic competition

在转向市场过程中竞争的规范含义之前,首先重要的是对市场过程的制度基础及其后果进行积极分析。我用“制度”这个词来强调市场过程的显着特征不是基于自由放任的竞争。虽然这种说法可能看起来有争议,但对“竞争”和“自由放任”这两个词的简单“拆解”将引导我们理解,首先,为什么这样的描述具有高度的误导性,其次,市场过程与其他形式的经济和社会互动。

首先,从最基本的层面来说,竞争只不过是一个解决冲突的过程,因此,它是跨越时间和地点的所有人类互动的普遍属性。鉴于稀缺性的普遍性,每一种经济和社会互动形式都具有内在的竞争性,因为个人必须解决如何实现自己的个人目标,这些目标总是大于实现这些目标的手段(Alchian 1965;Alchian and Allen 1972) . 任何经济或社会制度,如资本主义、共产主义或法西斯主义,都无法消除稀缺性,因此也无法消除竞争。虽然竞争无处不在,但竞争的表现方式在制度上是偶然的(Boettke 2012)。因此,将自由市场经济描述为“竞争体系”并不意味着竞争在市场过程中的独特表现。

其次,这给我们带来了自由市场经济的显着制度特征,即在明确界定和执行良好的可交换私有财产权的法律框架内的交换竞争。认为自由市场经济是自由放任经济意味着市场在制度真空中运行,而没有考虑到规范哪些竞争形式受到制裁以及哪些是正式和非正式规则所禁止的规则。3正如哈耶克在这一点上所说的那样:
一个相对不活跃但做错事的政府可能比一个更关心经济事务但只限于帮助自发行动的政府更能削弱市场经济的力量。经济的力量。

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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