经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|ECON7200

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市场经济是一种经济体系,其中有两种力量,即供应和需求,指导商品和服务的生产。市场经济不受中央当局(如政府)控制,而是基于自愿交换。

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我们提供的市场经济学Market economy及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The rise of the social market economy after the Second World War

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The rise of the social market economy after the Second World War

While the moral underpinnings of ordoliberally inspired economic and social science stem from the practical experiences with an unfree political system and the failure of a democratic experiment (The Weimar Republic), the implementation of ordoliberal ideas after the war followed somewhat different values. Given the enormous success of the ‘German Economic Miracle’, ${ }^{8}$ one is tempted to believe that the process unfolded without setbacks, opposition, or considerable efforts to push through the desired policies. This would be a grave misunderstanding of the matter, and the following section will thus demonstrate how the early efforts to implement ordoliberal ideas in practical policymaking were frequently met with resistance and thus often had to be, and were, tailored to fit certain popular beliefs and societal demands. The section will lay out in which sense not only economic thinking itself is influenced by moral values and social forces, but how the policy conclusions drawn from economic analysis need to be marketed, sold, and modified in political discourse and practice. The emergence of the social market economy in Germany post-Sccond World War represcnts a concisc illustration of how policy changes may unfold in a coordinated market economy.

The colloquially told story about the birth of the social market economy and the German economic miracle goes something like this: the economy was in shambles after the war, there was an excessive money surplus, prices were controlled, and life was generally miserable. Out of all this came Ludwig Erhard, a hero-like figure, who single-handedly freed the economy from price controls when the Allied Powers introduced currency reform in 1948 . From this moment onwards, everything went smoothly, Germans became rich and ‘lived happily ever after.’

As the somewhat sarcastic tone of the first lines indicates, this account lacks nuance considerably: while the existence of an ‘economic miracle’ can be called into question, we will instead focus on the often-portrayed seamlessness of the process and instead demonstrate that a lot of ‘convincing’ was necessary before the social market economy could be introduced. Problems started soon after the lifting of price controls in June 1948 , with the prices of some gonds (particularly eggs) rising rapidly. This led to outrage and a rejection of the newly introduced market economy by wide segments of the population, casting doubt on the possibility of the implemented reforms being kept up in the long term. It sensitized the ordoliberals towards the prime importance of public opinion being favourable towards the idea of a market economy.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Flourishing, virtue, and the good life in ordoliberalism

The chapter now turns to a thorough discussion of the normative and cultural underpinnings of economies, as viewed by the ordoliberals. We might best approach the matter by thinking through the relationship between markets, virtues, and the idea of a good life in ordoliberal thought. Chapter 3 has illustrated that in the free market tradition, markets are seen as promoters of virtues, which, if consistently applied and lived, will enable what can be dubbed ‘the good life.’ As we shall see, the ordoliberal view differs considerably from this. The notion of what constitutes a good life stands at the beginning of the ordoliberal analysis and is something to be defined by the analyzing economist, who for this purpose also has to be a sociologist or cultural critic. Therefore, markets are merely a way and not the source of achieving the goal of a good life for most people. However, their functioning, and thus also the degree to which they will be able to promole a good life for most people, is dependent on the presence of certain virtues to mediate market activities. ${ }^{12}$ According to the ordoliberal account, the degree to which these virtues are present will determine the attainment of the good life for most.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Non-market prerequisites of the market

It has long been established that the focus on the surrounding frameworks of a market economy, the ‘edges of the market’, is one of the most pronounced characteristics of the ordoliberal approach. At the policy level, this chiefly comes down to a somewhat limited, but strong, state which guarantees the sustainability of the legal order and does not let itself be dominated by special interests.

Additionally, state institutions must actively prevent the formation of cartels and monopolies or, in the case that they already exist, attempt their break-up. In the presence of too much economic power influencing economic processes, a free and welfare-enhancing economic order cannot be realized. The most concise representation of this can be found in Eucken’s seven ‘constituting principles’ and four ‘regulating principles’ of a market economy, according to which certain prerequisites (like private property, freedom to contract, or stable money) have to be met before economic activity can ever unfold on markets (Eucken 1952 [2004]). Once it is underway, principles such as ‘monopoly control’ or ‘distribution of incomes’ serve as the regulating principles.

However, it has often been overlooked that in the ordoliberals’ estimation there also exist non-economic, we might say cultural or moral, prerequisites to successful market interaction, that can neither be created by the market itself nor always be provided by governments (though they can often help people to provide them). Among the elements where government action could potentially lead to conditions that are more favourable are equality of opportunity and some rudimentary knowledge about economic processes on the part of the general population, i.e., the promotion of economic education. With respect to the former, all ordoliberals take a stance that differs markedly from most other liberal approaches to economics, most drastically to what they themselves would refer to as ‘paleoliberalism’, i.e., Ludwig von Mises, for instance. For them, some form of material equality is seen as necessary for the beneficial functioning of a market economy and a prohibitively high inheritance tax as a prerequisite for successfully fighting the problem of economic concentration (Rüstow $1950[2001]$ ). However, they also viewed a more egalitarian distribution of incomes and wealth as morally superior to its more unequal counterpart. All in all, they thought that a society producing extremely non-egalitarian outcomes, and even more so starting positions, will, apart from being less desirable from a normative viewpoint, also create problems for the long-term viability of a market order and a free society. Additionally, the ordoliberals worried about widespread ignorance on the part of the people of their time about the economic order they were actually living in. Consider Eucken on the matter: ‘The economic order remains unknown to man in essential traits – as decisive as it is for his existence’ (Eucken 1952 [2004]: 194). While it would, of course, be unrealistic to make every citizen an informed expert about the economic order that they inhabit, the ordoliberals took seriously the ‘social question’ and in a way also the charges of ‘alienation’ in modern mass societies. Economic policy, they thought, can help to overcome these various deficiencies and provide the basis for the widespread use and acceptance of the market system.

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The rise of the social market economy after the Second World War

市场经济学代考

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|The rise of the social market economy after the Second World War

虽然受秩序自由主义启发的经济和社会科学的道德基础源于不自由政治制度的实践经验和民主实验的失败(魏玛共和国),但战后秩序自由主义思想的实施遵循了一些不同的价值观。鉴于“德国经济奇迹”的巨大成功,8人们很容易相信,这一进程的展开没有遇到挫折、反对或为推动所期望的政策而付出的巨大努力。这将是对此事的严重误解,因此,下一节将展示在实际决策中实施秩序自由主义思想的早期努力如何经常遇到阻力,因此常常不得不并且已经为适应某些流行的信仰和社会需求。本节将阐述在何种意义上不仅经济思想本身受到道德价值观和社会力量的影响,而且从经济分析中得出的政策结论需要如何在政治话语和实践中进行营销、推销和修改。

俗话说社会市场经济的诞生和德国的经济奇迹是这样的:战后经济一塌糊涂,货币过剩,物价被控制,生活普遍悲惨。1948 年同盟国实行货币改革时,他单枪匹马地将经济从价格控制中解放出来。从这一刻起,一切顺利,德国人变得富有,“从此过上了幸福的生活”。

正如第一行略带讽刺意味的语气所表明的那样,这个叙述相当缺乏细微差别:虽然“经济奇迹”的存在可能会受到质疑,但我们将转而关注经常被描绘的过程的无缝性,并证明在引入社会市场经济之前,需要大量的“说服力”。问题在 1948 年 6 月取消价格管制后不久就出现了,一些贡品(尤其是鸡蛋)的价格迅速上涨。这引起了广大民众的愤慨和对新引入的市场经济的拒绝,使人们对长期保持所实施的改革的可能性产生怀疑。它使秩序自由主义者意识到公众舆论支持市场经济理念的重要性。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Flourishing, virtue, and the good life in ordoliberalism

本章现在转向对秩序自由主义者所认为的经济的规范和文化基础进行彻底的讨论。我们最好通过思考市场、美德和秩序自由主义思想中的美好生活理念之间的关系来解决这个问题。第 3 章说明,在自由市场传统中,市场被视为美德的推动者,如果持续应用和践行美德,将促成所谓的“美好生活”。正如我们将看到的,秩序自由主义的观点与此有很大不同。什么是美好生活的概念站在秩序自由主义分析的开始,是由分析经济学家定义的,为此目的,他还必须是社会学家或文化批评家。所以,对大多数人来说,市场只是实现美好生活目标的一种方式,而不是源泉。然而,它们的功能,以及它们能够在多大程度上促进大多数人的美好生活,都依赖于某些美德的存在,以调解市场活动。12根据秩序自由主义的说法,这些美德的存在程度将决定大多数人能否过上美好的生活。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考|Non-market prerequisites of the market

长期以来,人们已经确定,关注市场经济的周边框架,即“市场的边缘”,是秩序自由主义方法最显着的特征之一。在政策层面,这主要归结为某种有限但强大的国家,它保证了法律秩序的可持续性,不让自己受制于特殊利益。

此外,国家机构必须积极防止卡特尔和垄断的形成,或者在它们已经存在的情况下,试图解散它们。在影响经济进程的经济力量过多的情况下,无法实现自由和提高福利的经济秩序。最简洁的表述可以在欧肯的市场经济的七项“构成原则”和四项“调节原则”中找到,根据这些原则,必须满足某些先决条件(如私有财产、契约自由或稳定的货币)经济活动可以在市场上展开(Eucken 1952 [2004])。一旦开始,“垄断控制”或“收入分配”等原则将成为调节原则。

然而,经常被忽视的是,在秩序自由主义者的估计中,成功的市场互动也存在非经济的、我们可以说是文化或道德的先决条件,这些先决条件既不能由市场本身创造,也不能总是由政府提供(尽管它们通常可以帮助人们提供它们)。政府行动可能导致更有利条件的因素包括机会平等和普通民众对经济过程的一些基本知识,即促进经济教育。就前者而言,所有秩序自由主义者都采取了与大多数其他自由主义经济学方法截然不同的立场,与他们自己所称的“古自由主义”(例如路德维希·冯·米塞斯)最为明显不同。对他们来说,1950[2001])。然而,他们也认为收入和财富的更平等分配在道德上优于其更不平等的对应物。总而言之,他们认为,一个产生极端非平等主义结果的社会,甚至更是如此的起始职位,除了从规范的角度来看不太理想之外,还会给市场秩序的长期生存能力和市场秩序带来问题。自由社会。此外,秩序自由主义者担心他们那个时代的人们普遍对他们实际生活的经济秩序一无所知。想想欧肯对此事的看法:“经济秩序在基本特征上仍然是人类所不知道的——尽管它具有决定性意义为了他的存在”(Eucken 1952 [2004]: 194)。虽然它当然会,让每个公民都成为了解他们所居住的经济秩序的专家是不现实的,秩序自由主义者认真对待“社会问题”,在某种程度上也认真对待现代大众社会的“异化”指控。他们认为,经济政策可以帮助克服这些不同的缺陷,并为市场体系的广泛使用和接受提供基础。

经济代写|市场经济学代写Market economy代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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