经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Gains from Trade

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微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Gains from Trade

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Schools of Economic Thought

The majority of the theories discussed in this book stem from two different schools of thought: neoclassical economics and new institutional economics. Despite the fact that neoclassical economics is the mainstream school of thought and taught at most universities around the world, the underlying paradigm is far from uncontroversial. The purpose of this subchapter is, therefore, to give a short overview over these, as well as other schools of thought, to better understand the paradigms and to put them into perspective.

Neoclassical economics is not a monolithic theory with undisputed first principles. Despite its heterogeneity and versatility, some underlying unifying principles can be identified: (1) methodological and normative individualism, (2) consequentialism (and, more specifically, welfarism, an ethical theory that we will discuss in Chap. 5), (3) rational or rationality-seeking agents, and (4) society as a network of mutual transactions that follow the logic of opportunity costs. These basal axioms are enriched by other more specific assumptions. Neoclassical economics is especially dominant in microeconomics, but it also developed into macroeconomics where, together with Keynesian economics, it forms the so-called neoclassical synthesis. Keynesianism was initially a fundamental critique of some of the implications of neoclassical thinking (like the neutrality of money) but was later integrated into the neoclassical theory (at the price of changing Keynes’ initial theory beyond recognition, as some Keynesians would stress).

As the name suggests, neoclassical economics emerged from classical economics, which is also called political economy. The main differences between classical and neoclassical economics represented a shift in attention regarding the most relevant economic problems and in the underlying theory of value, that is, a concept of what is valuable and creates value in society.

Classical economics originated at a time when capitalism was gradually replacing feudalism and innovations were fueling the Industrial Revolution that was completely changing society. One of the most pressing problems, in such a period of change, was how society could be organized, if every individual seeks his or her own advantage. This is why the idea that free markets have the ability to regulate themselves was of such profound importance, because it expressed the belief that a decentralized society, built on the principles of self-interest, can work. Important proponents of this school of thought were Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, and John Stuart Mill.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|How General Is the Theory of Comparative Advantage

A peculiar feature of the above model is the linearity of the production-possibility frontier. In this case, comparative advantage is a well-defined global concept and the results are completely general: with the exception of the limiting case of equal opportunity costs, there is always a way to increase production by specialization. There may, however, also be cases where production possibilities are more accurately described by a strictly concave (outward-bending) frontier. Such a frontier is typical if the productivity of production gets lower, the more you produce, like for example mining when it gets more and more difficult to extract the resource over time. In this case, comparative advantage is no longer a global, but rather a local concept, and it depends on the autarky points along the production-possibility frontier. Production-possibility frontiers are concave, if productivity is decreasing in production. Figure $2.4$ illustrates such a situation and the possibility for the reversal of comparative advantages.

Points $X$ and $Y$ represent two possible autarky situations. The slopes of the frontiers are a measure for local opportunity costs. As one can see, $A$ has a comparative advantage in the production of $T$ in $X$ and a comparative advantage in the production of $P$ in $Y$. Beyond that, however, there is no difference from the model with constant opportunity costs: if opportunity costs in autarky differ, there is room for mutual improvement by specialization and trade.

If the frontier can be concave, it could also be convex (inward-bending). Such a frontier is typical if the productivity of production gets higher, the more you produce, like for example if you learn over time to be more effective (learning by doing). Production-possibility frontiers are convex, if productivity is increasing in production. Figure $2.5$ illustrates this case.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Do Assumptions Matter

If assumptions shall not be realistic, then maybe one can conclude that assumptions do not matter at all. This position has, in fact, been put forward by (Friedman, 1953 , p. 14), one of the most influential economists of his time. He proposed that “Truly important and significant hypotheses will be found to have ‘assumptions’ that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality, and, in general, the more significant the theory, the more unrealistic the assumptions (in this sense).”

There is some debate as to whether Friedman adheres to the extreme position that assumptions do not matter at all (called instrumentalism) or not but, for the sake of argument, consider this position and see where it leads. According to an instrumentalist’s view, one should judge a theory according to the validity and usefulness of the hypotheses, whereas the assumptions are irrelevant. Does this position make sense? Look at the following model.
Model 3
Assumption: Seatbelts reduce the likelihood of fatal accidents.
Hypothesis: Seatbelts reduce the likelihood of fatal accidents.
Model 3 looks like a pretty nonsensical waste of time and is an example of a circular argument, but why does one find it intuitively unconvincing? The hypothesis can be empirically tested and it has been confirmed by the data. Therefore, according to an instrumentalist’s view, a theory that is built on this model passes the test of usefulness. The idea that assumptions are completely irrelevant is, of course, flawed because it prevents one from learning anything about the causal mechanisms that drive the hypotheses, if one cannot rule out the trivial model where hypotheses and assumptions coincide. Even if one’s mind can never grasp the true causal mechanism, and thus one has to be satisfied with crude narratives and heuristics, declaring the assumptions irrelevant leaves one with only cookbooks.

Instrumentalism is an extreme position and there are reasons to assume that Friedman’s own position is more balanced. He argues that the role of a positive science “is the development of a ‘theory’ or ‘hypothesis’ that yields valid and meaningful (i.e., not truistic) predictions about phenomena not yet observed.” It can be argued that the term “truistic” refers to models of the above type that are only uninteresting tautologies. In the end, scientific theory building has a subjective component, because the balance between, on the one hand, meaningful simplifications of the assumptions and of the supposed causal mechanisms, and, on the other hand, the explanatory power of the hypotheses cannot be precisely nailed down. It is the art and craft of experienced scientists to see if a theory is “in balance” in this sense.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Gains from Trade

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Schools of Economic Thought

本书中讨论的大部分理论源于两种不同的思想流派:新古典经济学和新制度经济学。尽管新古典经济学是世界上大多数大学的主流思想流派,但其基本范式远非没有争议。因此,本小节的目的是对这些以及其他思想流派进行简要概述,以更好地理解范式并将它们置于正确的角度。

新古典经济学不是一个具有无可争议的首要原则的单一理论。尽管存在异质性和多功能性,但可以确定一些潜在的统一原则:(1)方法论和规范的个人主义,(2)后果主义(更具体地说,福利主义,我们将在第 5 章讨论的伦理理论),(3)理性或寻求理性的代理人,以及(4)社会是一个遵循机会成本逻辑的相互交易网络。其他更具体的假设丰富了这些基本公理。新古典经济学在微观经济学中尤其占主导地位,但它也发展为宏观经济学,与凯恩斯经济学一起形成了所谓的新古典综合。

顾名思义,新古典经济学起源于古典经济学,也称为政治经济学。古典经济学和新古典经济学之间的主要区别代表了对最相关的经济问题和基本价值理论的关注转移,即价值的概念和在社会中创造价值的概念。

古典经济学起源于资本主义逐渐取代封建主义,创新推动工业革命彻底改变社会的时代。在这样一个变革时期,最紧迫的问题之一是如何组织社会,如果每个人都寻求自己的优势。这就是为什么自由市场具有自我调节能力的想法如此重要的原因,因为它表达了一种信念,即建立在自利原则之上的去中心化社会可以运作。这一学派的重要支持者是亚当·斯密、让-巴蒂斯特·赛伊、大卫·李嘉图、托马斯·马尔萨斯和约翰·斯图尔特·米尔。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|How General Is the Theory of Comparative Advantage

上述模型的一个特点是生产可能性边界的线性。在这种情况下,比较优势是一个定义明确的全球概念,其结果是完全一般的:除了机会成本相等的极限情况外,总有一种方法可以通过专业化来增加产量。然而,在某些情况下,生产可能性可以通过严格的凹(向外弯曲)边界更准确地描述。如果生产的生产率越低,生产的越多,例如采矿,随着时间的推移,开采资源变得越来越困难,这种边界就是典型的。在这种情况下,比较优势不再是一个全球性的概念,而是一个局部性的概念,它取决于生产可能性边界沿线的自给自足点。如果生产中的生产率正在下降,则生产可能性边界是凹的。数字2.4说明了这种情况和比较优势逆转的可能性。

积分X和是代表两种可能的自给自足情况。边界的斜率是衡量当地机会成本的指标。可以看出,一个在生产上具有比较优势吨在X并且在生产上具有比较优势磷在是. 然而,除此之外,与具有恒定机会成本的模型没有区别:如果自给自足的机会成本不同,则存在通过专业化和贸易相互改进的空间。

如果边界可以是凹的,它也可以是凸的(向内弯曲)。如果生产效率越高,您生产的越多,例如,如果您随着时间的推移学习变得更有效(边做边学),那么这种边界是典型的。如果生产中的生产率在提高,则生产可能性边界是凸的。数字2.5说明了这种情况。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Do Assumptions Matter

如果假设不现实,那么也许可以得出结论,假设根本不重要。事实上,这一立场是由当时最有影响力的经济学家之一(弗里德曼,1953 年,第 14 页)提出的。他提出“将发现真正重要和重要的假设具有非常不准确的对现实的描述性表示的’假设’,并且一般来说,理论越重要,假设(在这个意义上)就越不现实。”

关于弗里德曼是否坚持假设根本不重要的极端立场(称为工具主义)存在一些争论,但为了争论,考虑一下这个立场并看看它会导致什么。根据工具主义者的观点,人们应该根据假设的有效性和有用性来判断一个理论,而假设是无关紧要的。这个位置有意义吗?看看下面的模型。
模型 3
假设:安全带可降低致命事故的可能性。
假设:安全带降低了致命事故的可能性。
Model 3 看起来是一种非常荒谬的浪费时间,是循环论证的一个例子,但为什么人们会觉得它在直觉上没有说服力呢?该假设可以通过经验检验,并已被数据证实。因此,根据工具主义者的观点,建立在这个模型上的理论通过了有用性的检验。当然,假设完全不相关的想法是有缺陷的,因为如果不能排除假设和假设重合的琐碎模型,它会阻止人们了解驱动假设的因果机制。即使一个人的头脑永远无法掌握真正的因果机制,因此必须满足于粗糙的叙述和启发式方法,但宣布这些假设无关紧要,只会留下食谱。

工具主义是一种极端立场,有理由假设弗里德曼自己的立场更加平衡。他认为,实证科学的作用是“发展一种‘理论’或‘假设’,从而对尚未观察到的现象做出有效且有意义的(即,非老生常谈的)预测。” 可以说,术语“自言自语”指的是上述类型的模型,它们只是无趣的重言式。最后,科学理论构建具有主观成分,因为一方面对假设和假设的因果机制进行有意义的简化,另一方面,假设的解释力不能精确地平衡。明确了。看一个理论在这个意义上是否“平衡”是经验丰富的科学家的艺术和技艺。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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