statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Schools of Economic Thought

The majority of the theories discussed in this book stem from two different schools of thought: neoclassical economics and new institutional economics. Despite the fact that neoclassical economics is the mainstream school of thought and taught at most universities around the world, the underlying paradigm is far from uncontroversial. The purpose of this subchapter is, therefore, to give a short overview over these, as well as other schools of thought, to better understand the paradigms and to put them into perspective.

Neoclassical economics is not a monolithic theory with undisputed first principles. Despite its heterogeneity and versatility, some underlying unifying principles can be identified: (1) methodological and normative individualism, (2) consequentialism (and, more specifically, welfarism, an ethical theory that we will discuss in Chap. 5), (3) rational or rationality-seeking agents, and (4) society as a network of mutual transactions that follow the logic of opportunity costs. These basal axioms are enriched by other more specific assumptions. Neoclassical economics is especially dominant in microeconomics, but it also developed into macroeconomics where, together with Keynesian economics, it forms the so-called neoclassical synthesis. Keynesianism was initially a fundamental critique of some of the implications of neoclassical thinking (like the neutrality of money) but was later integrated into the neoclassical theory (at the price of changing Keynes’ initial theory beyond recognition, as some Keynesians would stress).

As the name suggests, neoclassical economics emerged from classical economics, which is also called political economy. The main differences between classical and neoclassical economics represented a shift in attention regarding the most relevant economic problems and in the underlying theory of value, that is, a concept of what is valuable and creates value in society.

Classical economics originated at a time when capitalism was gradually replacing feudalism and innovations were fueling the Industrial Revolution that was completely changing society. One of the most pressing problems, in such a period of change, was how society could be organized, if every individual seeks his or her own advantage. This is why the idea that free markets have the ability to regulate themselves was of such profound importance, because it expressed the belief that a decentralized society, built on the principles of self-interest, can work. Important proponents of this school of thought were Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, and John Stuart Mill.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|How General Is the Theory of Comparative Advantage

A peculiar feature of the above model is the linearity of the production-possibility frontier. In this case, comparative advantage is a well-defined global concept and the results are completely general: with the exception of the limiting case of equal opportunity costs, there is always a way to increase production by specialization. There may, however, also be cases where production possibilities are more accurately described by a strictly concave (outward-bending) frontier. Such a frontier is typical if the productivity of production gets lower, the more you produce, like for example mining when it gets more and more difficult to extract the resource over time. In this case, comparative advantage is no longer a global, but rather a local concept, and it depends on the autarky points along the production-possibility frontier. Production-possibility frontiers are concave, if productivity is decreasing in production. Figure $2.4$ illustrates such a situation and the possibility for the reversal of comparative advantages.

Points $X$ and $Y$ represent two possible autarky situations. The slopes of the frontiers are a measure for local opportunity costs. As one can see, $A$ has a comparative advantage in the production of $T$ in $X$ and a comparative advantage in the production of $P$ in $Y$. Beyond that, however, there is no difference from the model with constant opportunity costs: if opportunity costs in autarky differ, there is room for mutual improvement by specialization and trade.

If the frontier can be concave, it could also be convex (inward-bending). Such a frontier is typical if the productivity of production gets higher, the more you produce, like for example if you learn over time to be more effective (learning by doing). Production-possibility frontiers are convex, if productivity is increasing in production. Figure $2.5$ illustrates this case.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Do Assumptions Matter

If assumptions shall not be realistic, then maybe one can conclude that assumptions do not matter at all. This position has, in fact, been put forward by (Friedman, 1953 , p. 14), one of the most influential economists of his time. He proposed that “Truly important and significant hypotheses will be found to have ‘assumptions’ that are wildly inaccurate descriptive representations of reality, and, in general, the more significant the theory, the more unrealistic the assumptions (in this sense).”

There is some debate as to whether Friedman adheres to the extreme position that assumptions do not matter at all (called instrumentalism) or not but, for the sake of argument, consider this position and see where it leads. According to an instrumentalist’s view, one should judge a theory according to the validity and usefulness of the hypotheses, whereas the assumptions are irrelevant. Does this position make sense? Look at the following model.
Model 3
Assumption: Seatbelts reduce the likelihood of fatal accidents.
Hypothesis: Seatbelts reduce the likelihood of fatal accidents.
Model 3 looks like a pretty nonsensical waste of time and is an example of a circular argument, but why does one find it intuitively unconvincing? The hypothesis can be empirically tested and it has been confirmed by the data. Therefore, according to an instrumentalist’s view, a theory that is built on this model passes the test of usefulness. The idea that assumptions are completely irrelevant is, of course, flawed because it prevents one from learning anything about the causal mechanisms that drive the hypotheses, if one cannot rule out the trivial model where hypotheses and assumptions coincide. Even if one’s mind can never grasp the true causal mechanism, and thus one has to be satisfied with crude narratives and heuristics, declaring the assumptions irrelevant leaves one with only cookbooks.

Instrumentalism is an extreme position and there are reasons to assume that Friedman’s own position is more balanced. He argues that the role of a positive science “is the development of a ‘theory’ or ‘hypothesis’ that yields valid and meaningful (i.e., not truistic) predictions about phenomena not yet observed.” It can be argued that the term “truistic” refers to models of the above type that are only uninteresting tautologies. In the end, scientific theory building has a subjective component, because the balance between, on the one hand, meaningful simplifications of the assumptions and of the supposed causal mechanisms, and, on the other hand, the explanatory power of the hypotheses cannot be precisely nailed down. It is the art and craft of experienced scientists to see if a theory is “in balance” in this sense.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Do Assumptions Matter

Model 3 看起来是一种非常荒谬的浪费时间，是循环论证的一个例子，但为什么人们会觉得它在直觉上没有说服力呢？该假设可以通过经验检验，并已被数据证实。因此，根据工具主义者的观点，建立在这个模型上的理论通过了有用性的检验。当然，假设完全不相关的想法是有缺陷的，因为如果不能排除假设和假设重合的琐碎模型，它会阻止人们了解驱动假设的因果机制。即使一个人的头脑永远无法掌握真正的因果机制，因此必须满足于粗糙的叙述和启发式方法，但宣布这些假设无关紧要，只会留下食谱。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。