经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

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微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

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我们提供的微观经济学Microeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Problems with the textbook model

The analysis of the tariff The analysis of tariff removal compares two equilibrium positions. The implicit assumption is that the economy moves instantly and costlessly from one equilibrium to the other. This is not just a simplification for the convenience of students; it is common in empirical studies of changes in trade policy. These typically simulate what the economy would look like after a change in trade policy, but only consider the new equilibrium when all adjustments have taken place.

Perfectly competitive models of factor markets could be used to describe just such instantaneous and costless reallocations of resources. But in reality, the economy does not hop from one position on the production possibilities frontier to another; it follows a path inside the frontier as factors of production leave the import-competing sectors, and spend time unemployed before perhaps becoming re-employed in other sectors. The income lost during unemployment and the costs of becoming re-employed should be counted. ‘Economists have sometimes dismissed such adjustment costs with the comment that the displaced factors become re-employed “in

the longrun”. But this is bad economics, since in discounting streams of costs and benefits … the near-present counts more heavily than “the long run”‘, as some well-known international trade economists pointed out long ago., ${ }^{2}$ To be fair, many texts go beyond the simple Ricardian model to acknowledge the reality that some workers may lose their jobs and experience unemployment or a permanent reduction in earnings as demand for their skills declines. But as we will see in the next section this does not influence their judgement about the net gains from trade.

As well, the argument is commonly made (as we saw in Figure 10.1) that consumers benefit from lower prices for imported goods, resulting in an expansion of consumer surplus. But did you notice in our earlier ‘textbook’ exposition that this is only half the story? American economist Robert Driskill writes that in their enthusiasm for free trade, exponents of its benefits sometimes neglect to note that when tariffs are removed, the relative price of exportable goods must rise. People buying those goods will see their consumer surplus shrink. Whether any particular consumer is better off or worse off depends on the balance between the importable and exportable goods they buy. ${ }^{3}$

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Relaxing the textbook’s assumptions

The simple Ricardian model that illustrates comparative advantage and the gains from trade makes some critical assumptions. Technologies can differ permanently between countries; neither the technology nor factors of production can move between them. Only consumption goods can move internationally. It also assumes perfect competition and constant returns in production.

We will briefly consider what happens when each of these assumptions is relaxed. We then get a glimpse of the real world where corporations offshore production, taking their technology with them. Workers lose their jobs, putting downward pressure on wages in rich countries. Increasing returns lead to arbitrary patterns of specialization both within and between countries.

Technological change Paul Samuelson described what happens to countries’ national incomes if technology changes as a result of local developments. To adapt his analysis to our simple Ricardian wheat and cloth example from Chapter 2: suppose England experiences a technological improvement in wheat production, the good in which Canada has a comparative advantage. This lowers theworld price of wheat and reduces Canada’s gains from trade. Canada’s national income falls as its terms of trade fall (i.e. it must export more to get a given amount of imports). In the worst case, it eliminates Canada’s gains from trade and trade stops.

Samuelson pointed out that this kind of technological catch-up on the part of less developed, lower-wage regions has been common through history, both within countries and between countries. While total incomes rise in the areas ‘catching up’, income falls in the previously more advanced regions. ${ }^{20}$

Workers, owners, internationally mobile technology and capital The Ricardian model treats everyone like worker-owners, such as farmers who grow wheat and who keep sheep (who provide the wool to make the cloth). They consume some of their own produce and trade the rest. In this simple setting, there are no winners and losers; everyone can gain from trade. Yet, as Stephen Marglin remarks, ‘the distinction between worker and owner is basic to capitalism, as is the distinction between producer and consumer’, adding: ‘it is not just a simplification to ignore these realities but a distortion’ $.21$

Marglin offers a more realistic model in a simple numerical example to illustrate what happens when workers and owners are considered separately. In the case he considers, a multinational corporation located in an industrialized country offshores some of its nail production to a developing country. ${ }^{22}$ Both technology and the physical capital in which it is embodied move. This is an example of a way in which technological differences between countries can change that is different in an important way from Samuelson’s analysis, where the technological change took place abroad, but without a flow of capital.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|What’s missing from the textbooks

Once again, the usual suspects are missing in the textbook account: externalities, asymmetric information and power. In the international context, they raise new problems.

The problem of externalities The textbook analysis of trade assumes the usual default case of no externalities. As we stressed in Chapter 7 , externalities are everywhere. When they are not taken into account in decision-making, international trade will be inefficiently large.

The most obvious externalities are global: the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are involved in the transportation of all kinds of traded goods and services, whether it is fresh flowers flown from Kenya to England, container ships travelling from China to Rotterdam, or millions of tourists flying to exotic locations. Neither international aviation nor international shipping were directly included in the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Negotiations and planning to deal with their rapidly growing emissions were left to the UN organizations dealing with these industries. ${ }^{28}$ Whether these will be effective remains to be seen.

Indian-British economist Partha Dasgupta gives a nice example of more local externalities. ${ }^{29}$ Suppose that the government of a developing country offers timber concessions to private companies which cut down the forest and export the wood. This damages watersheds and the livelihoods of farmers and fishers downstream. They have too little political power to get compensation for the damage they suffer. This effectively subsidizes the country’s timber exports and transfers wealth from the poorest people in a poor country to the owners of the forestry companies and to importers in rich countries.

How big are such subsidies and how much is trade influenced by them? Dasgupta writes: ‘Unfortunately, I can give you no idea … because they haven’t been estimated. International organizations have the resources to undertake such studies; but, to the best of my knowledge, they haven’t done so.’ He rightly adds that examples like this do not make a case against free

trade, as such, but they do show that the case for free trade must include a consideration of its environmental impacts. ${ }^{3 \circ}$

Defenders of globalization, such as economist Martin Wolf of the Financial Times, dismiss such concerns about exports being, in effect, subsidized by externalized costs.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Problems with the textbook model

关税分析 关税取消分析比较了两个均衡位置。隐含的假设是经济会立即且无成本地从一个均衡转移到另一个均衡。这不仅仅是为了方便学生的简化;这在贸易政策变化的实证研究中很常见。这些通常模拟贸易政策改变后经济的样子,但只考虑所有调整都发生后的新均衡。

要素市场的完全竞争模型可以用来描述这种即时且无成本的资源重新配置。但实际上,经济不会从生产可能性边界的一个位置跳到另一个位置。随着生产要素离开与进口竞争的部门,并在可能重新进入其他部门之前失业,它沿着边境内部的路径前进。失业期间损失的收入和重新就业的成本应该计算在内。“经济学家有时会驳斥这种调整成本,并评论说被取代的因素会重新就业”

长期”。但这是糟糕的经济学,因为在折现成本和收益流时……正如一些著名的国际贸易经济学家很久以前指出的那样,近期比“长期”更重要。2公平地说,许多文本超越了简单的李嘉图模型,承认了这样一个现实,即随着对技能的需求下降,一些工人可能会失去工作并经历失业或收入永久性减少。但正如我们将在下一节中看到的,这不会影响他们对交易净收益的判断。

同样,人们普遍认为(如图 10.1 所示)消费者受益于进口商品的低价,从而导致消费者剩余的扩大。但是您是否注意到在我们之前的“教科书”论述中这只是故事的一半?美国经济学家罗伯特·德里斯基尔(Robert Driskill)写道,在他们对自由贸易的热情中,其利益的代表者有时忽略了当关税被取消时,出口商品的相对价格必须上涨。购买这些商品的人将看到他们的消费者剩余减少。任何特定消费者的境况是好是坏取决于他们购买的进口商品和出口商品之间的平衡。3

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Relaxing the textbook’s assumptions

说明比较优势和贸易收益的简单李嘉图模型做出了一些关键假设。国家之间的技术可能永久不同;技术和生产要素都不能在它们之间移动。只有消费品可以国际流通。它还假设生产中的完全竞争和恒定回报。

我们将简要考虑当这些假设都放松时会发生什么。然后,我们瞥见了公司离岸生产并随身携带技术的现实世界。工人失去工作,给富裕国家的工资带来下行压力。报酬递增导致国家内部和国家之间的任意专业化模式。

技术变革 Paul Samuelson 描述了如果技术因当地发展而发生变化,国家的国民收入会发生什么变化。为了使他的分析适应我们第 2 章中李嘉图小麦和布料的简单例子:假设英国在小麦生产方面经历了技术进步,加拿大在这方面具有比较优势。这降低了小麦的世界价格并减少了加拿大的贸易收益。加拿大的国民收入随着其贸易条件的下降而下降(即它必须出口更多才能获得一定数量的进口)。在最坏的情况下,它会抵消加拿大从贸易和贸易止损中获得的收益。

萨缪尔森指出,欠发达、低工资地区的这种技术追赶在历史上很常见,无论是在国家内部还是国家之间。虽然“追赶”地区的总收入增加,但之前更发达的地区的收入下降。20

工人、所有者、国际移动技术和资本李嘉图模式将每个人都视为工人所有者,例如种植小麦和养羊的农民(他们提供羊毛来制作布料)。他们消费自己的一些产品,其余的进行交易。在这个简单的设置中,没有赢家和输家;每个人都可以从贸易中获益。然而,正如斯蒂芬·马格林所说,“工人和所有者之间的区别是资本主义的基础,生产者和消费者之间的区别也是如此”,并补充说:“忽视这些现实不仅是一种简化,而且是一种扭曲。”.21

Marglin 在一个简单的数值示例中提供了一个更现实的模型来说明当工人和所有者被分开考虑时会发生什么。在他考虑的案例中,位于工业化国家的跨国公司将其部分钉子生产转移到发展中国家。22技术和体现它的物质资本都在移动。这是国家间技术差异可能发生变化的一个例子,这与萨缪尔森的分析有很大不同,在萨缪尔森的分析中,技术变化发生在国外,但没有资本流动。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|What’s missing from the textbooks

再一次,教科书帐户中缺少通常的嫌疑人:外部性、不对称信息和权力。在国际背景下,它们提出了新的问题。

外部性问题 教科书式的贸易分析假定通常默认情况下没有外部性。正如我们在第 7 章中强调的那样,外部性无处不在。如果在决策中不考虑这些因素,国际贸易将是低效的。

最明显的外部性是全球性的:各种贸易商品和服务的运输所涉及的温室气体 (GHG) 排放,无论是从肯尼亚空运到英国的鲜花、从中国到鹿特丹的集装箱船,还是数百万的游客飞往异国情调的地方。国际航空和国际航运均未直接纳入 2015 年巴黎气候协议。处理快速增长的排放量的谈判和计划留给了处理这些行业的联合国组织。28这些是否有效还有待观察。

印裔英国经济学家 Partha Dasgupta 举了一个很好的例子来说明更多的地方外部性。29假设一个发展中国家的政府向砍伐森林和出口木材的私营公司提供木材特许权。这损害了流域以及下游农民和渔民的生计。他们的政治权力太小,无法为他们所遭受的损害获得赔偿。这有效地补贴了该国的木材出口,并将财富从贫穷国家最贫穷的人转移到林业公司的所有者和富裕国家的进口商。

此类补贴有多大,贸易受其影响有多大?达斯古普塔写道:“不幸的是,我不能告诉你……因为他们没有被估计过。国际组织有资源进行此类研究;但是,据我所知,他们还没有这样做。他正确地补充说,像这样的例子并不构成反对免费的理由

贸易本身,但它们确实表明,自由贸易的理由必须包括对其环境影响的考虑。3∘

全球化的捍卫者,例如英国《金融时报》的经济学家马丁沃尔夫,对出口实际上受到外部成本补贴的担忧不予理会。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

统计代写请认准statistics-lab™. statistics-lab™为您的留学生涯保驾护航。

金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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