### 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE ANTI-TEXT

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Problems with the textbook model

The analysis of the tariff The analysis of tariff removal compares two equilibrium positions. The implicit assumption is that the economy moves instantly and costlessly from one equilibrium to the other. This is not just a simplification for the convenience of students; it is common in empirical studies of changes in trade policy. These typically simulate what the economy would look like after a change in trade policy, but only consider the new equilibrium when all adjustments have taken place.

Perfectly competitive models of factor markets could be used to describe just such instantaneous and costless reallocations of resources. But in reality, the economy does not hop from one position on the production possibilities frontier to another; it follows a path inside the frontier as factors of production leave the import-competing sectors, and spend time unemployed before perhaps becoming re-employed in other sectors. The income lost during unemployment and the costs of becoming re-employed should be counted. ‘Economists have sometimes dismissed such adjustment costs with the comment that the displaced factors become re-employed “in

the longrun”. But this is bad economics, since in discounting streams of costs and benefits … the near-present counts more heavily than “the long run”‘, as some well-known international trade economists pointed out long ago., ${ }^{2}$ To be fair, many texts go beyond the simple Ricardian model to acknowledge the reality that some workers may lose their jobs and experience unemployment or a permanent reduction in earnings as demand for their skills declines. But as we will see in the next section this does not influence their judgement about the net gains from trade.

As well, the argument is commonly made (as we saw in Figure 10.1) that consumers benefit from lower prices for imported goods, resulting in an expansion of consumer surplus. But did you notice in our earlier ‘textbook’ exposition that this is only half the story? American economist Robert Driskill writes that in their enthusiasm for free trade, exponents of its benefits sometimes neglect to note that when tariffs are removed, the relative price of exportable goods must rise. People buying those goods will see their consumer surplus shrink. Whether any particular consumer is better off or worse off depends on the balance between the importable and exportable goods they buy. ${ }^{3}$

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Relaxing the textbook’s assumptions

The simple Ricardian model that illustrates comparative advantage and the gains from trade makes some critical assumptions. Technologies can differ permanently between countries; neither the technology nor factors of production can move between them. Only consumption goods can move internationally. It also assumes perfect competition and constant returns in production.

We will briefly consider what happens when each of these assumptions is relaxed. We then get a glimpse of the real world where corporations offshore production, taking their technology with them. Workers lose their jobs, putting downward pressure on wages in rich countries. Increasing returns lead to arbitrary patterns of specialization both within and between countries.

Technological change Paul Samuelson described what happens to countries’ national incomes if technology changes as a result of local developments. To adapt his analysis to our simple Ricardian wheat and cloth example from Chapter 2: suppose England experiences a technological improvement in wheat production, the good in which Canada has a comparative advantage. This lowers theworld price of wheat and reduces Canada’s gains from trade. Canada’s national income falls as its terms of trade fall (i.e. it must export more to get a given amount of imports). In the worst case, it eliminates Canada’s gains from trade and trade stops.

Samuelson pointed out that this kind of technological catch-up on the part of less developed, lower-wage regions has been common through history, both within countries and between countries. While total incomes rise in the areas ‘catching up’, income falls in the previously more advanced regions. ${ }^{20}$

Workers, owners, internationally mobile technology and capital The Ricardian model treats everyone like worker-owners, such as farmers who grow wheat and who keep sheep (who provide the wool to make the cloth). They consume some of their own produce and trade the rest. In this simple setting, there are no winners and losers; everyone can gain from trade. Yet, as Stephen Marglin remarks, ‘the distinction between worker and owner is basic to capitalism, as is the distinction between producer and consumer’, adding: ‘it is not just a simplification to ignore these realities but a distortion’ $.21$

Marglin offers a more realistic model in a simple numerical example to illustrate what happens when workers and owners are considered separately. In the case he considers, a multinational corporation located in an industrialized country offshores some of its nail production to a developing country. ${ }^{22}$ Both technology and the physical capital in which it is embodied move. This is an example of a way in which technological differences between countries can change that is different in an important way from Samuelson’s analysis, where the technological change took place abroad, but without a flow of capital.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|What’s missing from the textbooks

Once again, the usual suspects are missing in the textbook account: externalities, asymmetric information and power. In the international context, they raise new problems.

The problem of externalities The textbook analysis of trade assumes the usual default case of no externalities. As we stressed in Chapter 7 , externalities are everywhere. When they are not taken into account in decision-making, international trade will be inefficiently large.

The most obvious externalities are global: the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are involved in the transportation of all kinds of traded goods and services, whether it is fresh flowers flown from Kenya to England, container ships travelling from China to Rotterdam, or millions of tourists flying to exotic locations. Neither international aviation nor international shipping were directly included in the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Negotiations and planning to deal with their rapidly growing emissions were left to the UN organizations dealing with these industries. ${ }^{28}$ Whether these will be effective remains to be seen.

Indian-British economist Partha Dasgupta gives a nice example of more local externalities. ${ }^{29}$ Suppose that the government of a developing country offers timber concessions to private companies which cut down the forest and export the wood. This damages watersheds and the livelihoods of farmers and fishers downstream. They have too little political power to get compensation for the damage they suffer. This effectively subsidizes the country’s timber exports and transfers wealth from the poorest people in a poor country to the owners of the forestry companies and to importers in rich countries.

How big are such subsidies and how much is trade influenced by them? Dasgupta writes: ‘Unfortunately, I can give you no idea … because they haven’t been estimated. International organizations have the resources to undertake such studies; but, to the best of my knowledge, they haven’t done so.’ He rightly adds that examples like this do not make a case against free

trade, as such, but they do show that the case for free trade must include a consideration of its environmental impacts. ${ }^{3 \circ}$

Defenders of globalization, such as economist Martin Wolf of the Financial Times, dismiss such concerns about exports being, in effect, subsidized by externalized costs.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Relaxing the textbook’s assumptions

Marglin 在一个简单的数值示例中提供了一个更现实的模型来说明当工人和所有者被分开考虑时会发生什么。在他考虑的案例中，位于工业化国家的跨国公司将其部分钉子生产转移到发展中国家。22技术和体现它的物质资本都在移动。这是国家间技术差异可能发生变化的一个例子，这与萨缪尔森的分析有很大不同，在萨缪尔森的分析中，技术变化发生在国外，但没有资本流动。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。