经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Microeconomics Anti-Textbook

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微观经济学是主流经济学的一个分支,研究个人和企业在做出有关稀缺资源分配的决策时的行为以及这些个人和企业之间的相互作用。

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富,各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

我们提供的微观经济学Microeconomics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Microeconomics Anti-Textbook

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Public Choice and the unsubtle bias against taxation, government spending and income redistribution

Unlike the basic description of the roles of government set out at the beginning of the Standard Text, the treatment of public choice varies across the texts. In our sample, a couple barely mention it, while most set out some of its central concepts in varying detail. Our Standard Text collects these to give a complete sketch. ${ }^{15}$

Public choice as an ideological project The unflattering picture of the public sector that emerges from public choice theory is no accident. British economist Charles Rowley, a prominent supporter of the approach, described the result of one of the first books on the subject, co-authored by James Buchanan: ‘The scene was set for a program of scientific endeavour that exposed government failure coupled to a program of moral philosophy that supported constitutional reform designed to limit government, even to the role of the nightwatchman state’ (our emphasis). ${ }^{16}$ A nightwatchman state is the libertarian capitalist ideal: a minimal state that does nothing more than operate a military for defence, police to deal with theft and violence, and a judicial system to enforce contracts and prevent fraud. ${ }^{17}$ The ‘constitutional reform’ Rowley refers to would strip governments of the ability to provide social insurance (healthcare, public education, unemployment insurance, pensions, childcare, assistance to the destitute and so on), to redistribute income in other ways, to regulate business and to address market failures. The result would be ‘democracy in chains’ – the title of American historian Nancy MacLean’s book about James Buchanan, with the subtitle ‘the radical right’s stealth plan for America’. Big business, owned or controlled largely by the wealthy, would be left the dominant force in society.

This extremist agenda has a powerful cult following, notably among right-wing billionaires, libertarian capitalist ‘think tanks’ and likeminded academics, but almost no popular support, hence the need for stealth in advancing their cause. Rowley was effectively saying that public choice theory was designed from the beginning to undermine support for collective action through government. In considering Buchanan’s economics, American economist Gary Mongiovi concluded that his work “is a modern manifestation of what [Karl] Marx called “vulgar economy”, that is, ruling-class ideology posing as science. ${ }^{18}$ Ironically, Buchanan himself was not shy about publicly accusing other economists of being ‘advocates for ideological interests’ – in this case, David Card and Alan Krueger, whose empirical findings about the minimum wage had no place in his ideology. ${ }^{19}$

Compare the textbook picture of the cost-efficient profit maximizing firm with the public choice story of cost-inefficient monopolistic government bureaucracies presided over by self-interested politicians with no interest in the public good. Compare the story of efficient markets, where market failures are the exception rather than the rule, with the story of inevitable government failure as policies are determined either by ignorant voters or by the power struggles of special interest groups. Even if there are real problems with market outcomes, the government cure is portrayed as worse than the disease. If a student accepts public choice theory uncritically – and no text that describes public choice ideas in some detail offers any critique – then reducing the size of the state by cutting taxes and spending, privatizing public services and so on starts to look attractive.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The subtle bias against taxation, government spending and income redistribution

In a study of the rhetoric of the textbooks, American economist David George points out that given the order of topics in the texts, government ‘tends to be treated as an entity emerging only after the private sector has established itself.’ ${ }^{\prime} 9$ The government then “interferes’ with markets for private goods through taxes and regulation.

With taxes, the texts focus attention on how the ‘burden’ will be shared and on technical explanations of the efficiency cost of taxes. (Ironically, the goods usually chosen to illustrate the ‘efficiency loss’ of excise taxes are goods, such as fuel, cigarettes and alcohol, that have negative externalities. Hence, as discussed in Chapter 7 , there may be efficiency gains, not losses!)4 The benefits from increased government spending that taxes make possible are made much less clear. In a book already weighted towards the importance of attaining efficiency in the use of scarce resources, what choice is the reader invited to make when it comes to the equity-efficiency trade-off?

The emphasis on the inefficiency of taxes reinforces the examples given in the texts in the supply and demand applications (reviewed in Chapter 3 ). They are typically ones in which the government appears to mess things up: minimum wages increase unemployment, rent controls create apartment shortages, subsidies create inefficiencies and taxes create efficiency losses. Warnings about ‘government failures’ (particularly if public choice theory is emphasized) further reinforce this. All this might have been what former US president Ronald Reagan was referring to when he said: ‘The nine most terrifying words in the English language are “I’m from the government and I’m here to help” ” $4^{41}$

Marginalizing economic inequality For much of the $20^{\text {th }}$ century, the subject of income inequality was marginalized and ignored, according to the English economist Anthony Atkinson who spent much of his professional life studying the subject. Not surprisingly, he ‘believed that it should be central to the study of economics’, yet (as he wrote) ‘a glance at today’s bestselling textbooks shows that the structure has remained much the same as in the past, with discussion of inequality kept separate from the central chapters’.42 (It’s in the same relative location as we have placed this chapter given that this book parallels the structure of the typical text.) We suspect that many economics courses never quite manage to get to the topic.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The pervasive costs of inequality

We’ve seen earlier, particularly in Chapter 4, evidence of the importance of relative position for individuals’ feelings of well-being. But the focus of textbook economics is on the individual removed from social context. As a result, it largely ignores the question of individuals’ relative position in society except for admitting its existence briefly if it defines poverty in relative terms. Yet a fundamental feature of human (and many other primate) societies is their social hierarchy and the awareness everyone has of their place in it.
The socialgradient of health Within even wealthy countries, life expectancies differ systematically and significantly between different groups of people. People’s income, their occupation and the social status attached to it, the degree of economic security and control over work and home life, and their social connectedness (all of which are interrelated) are all important determinants of individual health. Lower levels of these result in increased chances of poor mental and physical health and premature death. This is called the social gradient of health: average health and life expectancy

decline systematically the lower people are in the social hierarchy, often falling more rapidly at the lowest socioeconomic levels.

The English epidemiologist Michael Marmot, one of the foremost researchers in this area, explains that ‘these social inequalities in health … are not a footnote to the “real” causes of ill-health in countries that are no longer poor; they are the heart of the matter’. ${ }^{{ }^{\prime}}$ The idea of socio-economic inequality as a primary determinant of ill-health may seem surprising. Most public discussion of health policy centres on how well the healthcare system works, and issues of public health regulations (e.g. food and water quality) and individual behaviour, such as smoking, alcohol consumption or exercise. Yet there is ample evidence showing that the effects of socioeconomic inequality are deadly.

For example, the gap in life expectancy between those at the top and those at the bottom in affluent countries can be very large, even though it is largely preventable. There are zo year differences in life expectancy between people at the top and people at the bottom of the income distribution in cities like Glasgow, London, Baltimore, and Washington DC. ${ }^{81}$ The health of everyone in between is also affected by their socio-economic position.
Figure $9.5$ gives one example, showing life expectancy for men in England according to the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which they live. An index of multiple deprivation was calculated for each of almost 33,000 neighbourhoods. It combines measures of low income, lack of access to

employment, education and skill levels, and crime rates, among other things. ${ }^{82}$ The gap in life expectancy between men in the most deprived areas and those in the least deprived is $9.4$ years. The key point of the social gradient is that everyone is affected, not just those at the very bottom and at the very top. For women, the story is the same although the gap $-7.4$ years – is somewhat smaller.

Figure $9.5$ also shows estimates of ‘disability-free life expectancy’ – the amount of time people can expect to remain free of conditions that would restrict their day-to-day activities. For both men and women, the social gradient here is even steeper than that for life expectancy.

In their book for the World Health Organization, The Social Determinants of Health: The solid facts, Richard Wilkinson and Michael Marmot explain the psychosocial factors affecting physical health.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Microeconomics Anti-Textbook

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Public Choice and the unsubtle bias against taxation, government spending and income redistribution

与标准文本开头对政府角色的基本描述不同,对公共选择的处理因文本而异。在我们的样本中,有几个几乎没有提到它,而大多数都以不同的细节列出了它的一些核心概念。我们的标准文本收集这些以提供完整的草图。15

作为意识形态项目的公共选择 从公共选择理论中得出的令人不快的公共部门图景并非偶然。英国经济学家查尔斯·罗利(Charles Rowley)是该方法的主要支持者,他描述了由詹姆斯·布坎南(James Buchanan)合着的第一本关于该主题的书籍的结果:支持宪法改革的道德哲学计划,旨在限制政府,甚至限制在守夜人国家的作用”(我们的重点)。16守夜人国家是自由主义资本主义的理想:一个最低限度的国家,无非就是运营军队进行防御,警察处理盗窃和暴力,司法系统执行合同和防止欺诈。17罗利所指的“宪法改革”将剥夺政府提供社会保险(医疗保健、公共教育、失业保险、养老金、儿童保育、扶贫济困等)、以其他方式重新分配收入、规范企业的能力并解决市场失灵问题。结果将是“枷锁中的民主”——美国历史学家南希·麦克林关于詹姆斯·布坎南的书的标题,副标题是“激进右翼对美国的秘密计划”。主要由富人拥有或控制的大企业将成为社会的主导力量。

这一极端主义议程拥有强大的狂热追随者,尤其是在右翼亿万富翁、自由主义资本主义“智囊团”和志同道合的学者中,但几乎没有民众支持,因此在推进他们的事业时需要秘密行动。罗利实际上是在说,公共选择理论从一开始就是为了削弱对通过政府采取集体行动的支持。美国经济学家加里·蒙乔维(Gary Mongiovi)在考察布坎南的经济学时得出的结论是,他的著作“是[卡尔]马克思所说的“庸俗经济”的现代表现,即伪装成科学的统治阶级意识形态。18具有讽刺意味的是,布坎南本人并不羞于公开指责其他经济学家是“意识形态利益的拥护者”——在这种情况下,就是大卫卡德和艾伦克鲁格,他们关于最低工资的实证研究结果在他的意识形态中没有立足之地。19

比较具有成本效益的利润最大化公司的教科书图片与成本低效的垄断政府官僚机构的公共选择故事,这些官僚机构由对公共利益不感兴趣的自利政客主持。比较有效市场的故事,其中市场失灵是例外而不是规则,以及不可避免的政府失败的故事,因为政策要么由无知的选民决定,要么由特殊利益集团的权力斗争决定。即使市场结果存在真正的问题,政府的治疗也被描述为比疾病更糟糕。如果一个学生不加批判地接受公共选择理论——并且没有任何详细描述公共选择思想的文本提供任何批评——那么通过削减税收和支出来缩小国家规模,

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The subtle bias against taxation, government spending and income redistribution

美国经济学家大卫乔治在对教科书修辞的研究中指出,鉴于教科书主题的顺序,政府“往往被视为一个只有在私营部门建立起来之后才出现的实体”。′9然后,政府通过税收和监管“干预”私人物品市场。

对于税收,文本将注意力集中在“负担”将如何分担以及税收效率成本的技术解释上。(具有讽刺意味的是,通常选择用来说明消费税“效率损失”的商品是具有负外部性的商品,例如燃料、香烟和酒精。因此,正如第 7 章所讨论的,可能有效率收益,而不是损失! )4 税收使政府支出增加所带来的好处变得不那么清楚了。在一本已经强调提高稀缺资源使用效率的重要性的书中,当涉及到公平与效率的权衡时,请读者做出什么选择?

对税收无效率的强调强化了供求应用中文本中给出的示例(在第 3 章中进行了回顾)。它们通常是政府似乎把事情搞砸的情况:最低工资会增加失业率,租金控制会导致公寓短缺,补贴会导致效率低下,税收会导致效率损失。关于“政府失败”的警告(特别是在强调公共选择理论的情况下)进一步强化了这一点。这一切可能正是美国前总统罗纳德·里根所说的:“英语中最可怕的九个词是“我来自政府,我是来帮忙的”。441

将经济不平等边缘化20th 根据英国经济学家安东尼·阿特金森(Anthony Atkinson)的说法,收入不平等的主题在本世纪被边缘化和忽视,他的职业生涯大部分时间都在研究这一主题。毫不奇怪,他“相信它应该是经济学研究的核心”,但(正如他所写的)“看一眼当今最畅销的教科书就会发现,其结构与过去大体相同,对不平等的讨论一直保持不变。与中心章节分开。42(鉴于本书与典型文本的结构相似,它与我们放置本章的相对位置相同。)我们怀疑许多经济学课程从未完全触及主题。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The pervasive costs of inequality

我们在前面已经看到,特别是在第 4 章中,证明了相对位置对个人幸福感的重要性。但教科书经济学的重点是脱离社会背景的个人。因此,它在很大程度上忽略了个人在社会中的相对地位问题,如果它用相对的术语来定义贫困,只是简单地承认了它的存在。然而,人类(以及许多其他灵长类动物)社会的一个基本特征是他们的社会等级以及每个人都知道自己在其中的位置。
健康的社会梯度即使在富裕国家,不同人群的预期寿命也存在系统性和显着差异。人们的收入、他们的职业和与之相关的社会地位、经济保障程度以及对工作和家庭生活的控制程度以及他们的社会联系(所有这些都是相互关联的)都是个人健康的重要决定因素。较低水平的这些导致精神和身体健康状况不佳和过早死亡的机会增加。这被称为健康的社会梯度:平均健康和预期寿命

系统性地下降,社会等级中较低的人,往往在最低的社会经济水平下降得更快。

英国流行病学家迈克尔·马莫特(Michael Marmot)是该领域最重要的研究人员之一,他解释说,“这些健康方面的社会不平等……并不是对不再贫穷的国家健康不良的“真正”原因的注脚;他们是问题的核心”。′将社会经济不平等作为健康不良的主要决定因素的想法似乎令人惊讶。大多数关于卫生政策的公开讨论都集中在医疗保健系统的运作情况以及公共卫生法规(例如食品和水质)和个人行为(例如吸烟、饮酒或锻炼)问题上。然而,有充分的证据表明,社会经济不平等的影响是致命的。

例如,富裕国家的顶层和底层人口之间的预期寿命差距可能非常大,尽管它在很大程度上是可以预防的。在格拉斯哥、伦敦、巴尔的摩和华盛顿特区等城市,收入分配最高层和底层人群的预期寿命存在 0 年差异。81介于两者之间的每个人的健康也受到其社会经济地位的影响。
数字9.5举了一个例子,根据他们居住的社区的特征显示英格兰男性的预期寿命。为近 33,000 个社区中的每一个计算了多重剥夺指数。它结合了低收入、缺乏获得

就业、教育和技能水平以及犯罪率等等。82最贫困地区与最贫困地区男性的预期寿命差距为9.4年。社会梯度的关键是每个人都会受到影响,而不仅仅是最底层和最顶层的人。对于女性来说,故事是一样的,尽管差距−7.4年 – 有点小。

数字9.5还显示了“无残疾预期寿命”的估计值——人们可以期望保持不受限制其日常活动的条件的时间。对于男性和女性来说,这里的社会梯度甚至比预期寿命还要陡峭。

Richard Wilkinson 和 Michael Marmot 在他们为世界卫生组织撰写的著作《健康的社会决定因素:确凿的事实》中解释了影响身体健康的社会心理因素。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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