经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE STANDARD TEXT

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE STANDARD TEXT

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The extent and growth of international trade and investment

The importance of trade is typically expressed relative to the size of a country’s economy as measured by the total value of all the final goods and services it produces during the year – its gross domestic product (GDP). Trade takes place not only in goods, but also in services such as shipping, tourism and education. Table $10.1$ shows the relative size of exports and imports for a variety of countries and how these have changed from 1970 to 2019 , almost half a century.

For many countries, the relative importance of trade has increased substantially, particularly for developing countries such was India, China, Mexico and Turkey. Larger economies, such as the United States and Japan, are typically less reliant on trade than smaller countries. The very large values for Belgium and the Netherlands likely reflect the transshipment of goods through their major ports. As well, trade is typically not balanced, with some countries experiencing surpluses (exports exceeding imports) in 2019 , such as Germany. Others had deficits, such as the United States. A trade surplus reflects net lending to the rest of the world as the country sells more than it buys from the rest of the world. In effect, it is accumulating IOUs, promises to pay from other countries in the future. Similarly, trade deficits reflect net borrowing from the rest of the world.

There is nothing inherently good or bad about a trade surplus or deficit; it depends upon the circumstances in which it takes place. For example, a country in which there are good investment opportunities may have a trade deficit as it imports goods and services now to make those investments, enhancing its ability to export in the future.

This increase in trade has occurred for a variety of reasons. Reductions in transportation costs have been significant – consider, for example, the development of containerized shipping. This and improved communications have permitted the development of global supply chains, so that individual products can be produced from components made in many countries. Under a variety of trade agreements, trade barriers have been reduced since the 1970 . The remarkable growth of the Chinese economy since the 1980 and it joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been another contributing factor.

In Chapter 2, we explained how trade is determined by comparative advantage, relative costs of production between countries, and how this allows both countries to gain from trade. Restrictions on trade, such as tariffs, can reduce those gains. Let’s see how.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The economics of tariffs and import protection

We’ll analyse the effects of a tariff (i.e. tax on imports) on nails. For simplicity, we consider the ‘small country’ case, where the importing country takes

the world price of nails (here, $\$ 10 /$ kilo of nails) as given: its imports are too small to influence the price in any appreciable way. Figure $10.1$ illustrates this situation. At the world price, demand exceeds domestic supply; the difference is imports.

If the government imposes a tariff of $\$ 1 /$ kilo on nails, the domestic price rises by the same amount. Foreign suppliers of imported nails must get \$11// kilo of nails so that after paying the tariff they still get the world price of $\$ 10 /$ kilo. Otherwise, they would sell their nails elsewhere. The rise in price reduces the quantity demanded and increases the quantity produced domestically. As a result, imports decline.

The effect of the tariff is to make consumers of nails worse off and domestic producers of nails better off, while giving the government some revenue from that tariff. What is the net effect?

First, note that the price increase reduces consumers’ surplus (the area under the demand curve and above the price) by the areas $a+b+c+d$ in Figure 10.1. Area $c$ is the government’s tariff revenue, which involves no loss to society. (Imagine that it is returned to the population as a cash transfer.) The domestic nail producers get areas $a+b$ as they produce more and at a higher price. Part of that (area ‘ $b$ ‘), however, represents additional marginal costs of production above the world price, $P_{w}$, so really only area ‘ $a$ ‘ adds to their profits. If those who get these added profits are domestic residents, that results in no loss to society. The net result is that consumers have lost $a+b+c+d$, producers get ‘ $a$ ‘, governments get ‘ $c$ ‘; thus ‘ $b$ + $d$ ‘ is the net loss to society as a whole from the tariff. The loss comes from two sources: reduced consumption lowers consumer

surplus ( $d$ ‘) and the society has accepted higher domestic costs of production of nails than it could have paid to get the nails from abroad (“b’).

The analysis of a policy that limits imports to a certain maximum level (called an import quota or a quantitative restriction) is the same with the exception that in that case the government gets no tariff revenue. Either domestic importers or foreign producers get the benefits of the higher price, depending on who gets the valuable rights to import the limited amount of foreign nails.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The argument for free trade

The net costs of a tariff or a quota are the same as the net gains from removing them. Consumers gain consumer surplus from the lower price and greater consumption; on the production side, society’s resources are directed more towards the goods in which it has a comparative advantage. Total income in the country is higher and, as we saw in Chapter 2, every consumer can potentially have more of all goods. Those employed or owning capital in import-competing industries will be made worse off as they have to find employment elsewhere or accept lower incomes, but trade raises the economic well-being of a nation in the sense that the gains of the winners exceed the losses of the losers. Total surplus is increased. Therefore, the winners could compensate the losers and still be better off. In this sense, trade can make everyone better off.

Governments may provide assistance to those hurt by changes in trade policy, but compensation is unlikely to be complete. As a result, changes in trade policy are often controversial. The losers, being smaller in number than those who gain, may be in a better position to organize to obtain tariffs or to block trade liberalization. As a result, nations may fail to fully enjoy the gains from trade.

If all countries pursue free trade, the world would have a more efficient allocation of resources and a higher level of material well-being. Trade has the additional benefit that exposure to foreign competition also keeps domestic producers on their toes, adopting the best technologies to keep costs low and productivity high. The greater interdependence of economies around the world through trade and investment also promotes peace by making war more costly.

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|THE STANDARD TEXT

微观经济学代考

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The extent and growth of international trade and investment

贸易的重要性通常相对于一个国家的经济规模来表示,该经济规模以该国在这一年生产的所有最终商品和服务的总价值——其国内生产总值 (GDP) 来衡量。贸易不仅发生在货物方面,还发生在航运、旅游和教育等服务领域。桌子10.1显示了各个国家的进出口的相对规模,以及从 1970 年到 2019 年近半个世纪以来这些变化的情况。

对于许多国家而言,贸易的相对重要性已大幅增加,特别是对于印度、中国、墨西哥和土耳其等发展中国家而言。美国和日本等较大的经济体通常比较小的国家更少依赖贸易。比利时和荷兰的巨大价值可能反映了货物通过其主要港口转运。同样,贸易通常不平衡,一些国家在 2019 年出现顺差(出口超过进口),例如德国。其他国家有赤字,例如美国。贸易顺差反映了对世界其他地区的净贷款,因为该国的销售量超过了从世界其他地区购买的量。实际上,它正在积累借条,承诺将来从其他国家支付。相似地,

贸易顺差或逆差本质上没有好坏之分;这取决于它发生的环境。例如,一个拥有良好投资机会的国家可能会出现贸易逆差,因为它现在进口商品和服务以进行这些投资,从而增强其未来的出口能力。

贸易的这种增长有多种原因。运输成本的降低是显着的——例如,考虑集装箱运输的发展。这种和改进的通信促进了全球供应链的发展,因此可以使用许多国家制造的组件生产单个产品。根据各种贸易协定,自 1970 年以来,贸易壁垒有所减少。自 1980 年以来中国经济的显着增长以及中国加入世界贸易组织 (WTO) 是另一个促成因素。

在第 2 章中,我们解释了贸易是如何由比较优势、国家之间的相对生产成本决定的,以及这如何使两国从贸易中获益。关税等贸易限制可能会减少这些收益。让我们看看如何。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The economics of tariffs and import protection

我们将分析关税(即进口税)对指甲的影响。为简单起见,我们考虑“小国”的情况,进口国采取

世界钉子价格(这里,$10/一公斤钉子),因为它的进口量太小,无法以任何明显的方式影响价格。数字10.1说明了这种情况。以世界价格计算,需求超过国内供应;区别在于进口。

如果政府征收关税$1/一公斤钉子,国内价格上涨了同样的数量。进口钉子的外国供应商必须得到11美元//公斤的钉子,这样在支付关税后,他们仍能获得世界价格$10/公斤。否则,他们会在别处卖指甲。价格上涨减少了需求量,增加了国内生产的数量。结果,进口下降。

关税的效果是让美甲消费者的境况变得更糟,而国内美甲生产商的境况变得更好,同时让政府从关税中获得一些收入。净效应是什么?

首先,请注意,价格上涨会减少消费者剩余(需求曲线下方和价格上方的面积)的面积一个+b+C+d在图 10.1 中。区域C是政府的关税收入,不涉及社会损失。(想象一下,它作为现金转移返还给民众。)国内美甲生产商获得了地区一个+b因为他们以更高的价格生产更多。其中一部分(区域’b’),然而,代表高于世界价格的额外边际生产成本,磷在, 所以真的只有区域 ‘一个’ 增加了他们的利润。如果获得这些额外利润的人是国内居民,那对社会没有任何损失。最终结果是消费者失去了一个+b+C+d, 生产者得到 ‘一个’,政府得到’C’; 因此 ‘b + d’是关税给整个社会带来的净损失。损失来自两个来源:减少消费降低消费者

剩余(d’)并且社会已经接受了国内生产指甲的成本高于从国外获取指甲所支付的成本(“b”)。

对将进口限制在某个最高水平(称为进口配额或数量限制)的政策的分析是相同的,只是在这种情况下政府不会获得关税收入。无论是国内进口商还是外国生产商,都能从更高的价格中获益,这取决于谁获得了进口有限数量的外国钉子的宝贵权利。

经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The argument for free trade

关税或配额的净成本与取消它们的净收益相同。消费者从较低的价格和较大的消费中获得消费者剩余;在生产方面,社会资源更多地用于其具有比较优势的商品。该国的总收入更高,正如我们在第 2 章中看到的,每个消费者都可能拥有更多的商品。那些在进口竞争行业就业或拥有资本的人将变得更糟,因为他们不得不在其他地方找到工作或接受较低的收入,但贸易提高了一个国家的经济福祉,因为赢家的收益超过了损失的失败者。总盈余增加。因此,赢家可以补偿输家,但仍然过得更好。从这个意义上说,贸易可以让每个人都过得更好。

政府可能会向那些因贸易政策变化而受到伤害的人提供援助,但补偿不太可能是完全的。因此,贸易政策的变化常常引起争议。输家数量少于赢家,可能更容易组织起来获得关税或阻止贸易自由化。结果,各国可能无法充分享受贸易收益。

如果所有国家都追求自由贸易,世界将拥有更有效的资源配置和更高水平的物质福祉。贸易还有一个额外的好处,即暴露于外国竞争也让国内生产商保持警惕,采用最好的技术来保持低成本和高生产率。世界各地经济体通过贸易和投资实现更大的相互依存,也使战争成本更高,从而促进了和平。

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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