经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|What Is Economics

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经济学是研究稀缺性及其对资源的使用、商品和服务的生产、生产和福利的长期增长的影响,以及对社会至关重要的其他大量复杂问题的研究。

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我们提供的Economics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|What Is Economics

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Economy and Economic Systems

Every day, billions of people around the world make decisions. They make decisions about providing for the fundamentals in life such as food, clothing and shelter and how they use non-work time for leisure and domestic tasks. Making these decisions involves interaction with other people, with governments and business organizations. At any time, individuals could be mothers, fathers, sons, daughters, carers, employers, employees, houseworkers, producers, consumers, savers, taxpayers or benefit recipients. Many, but not all, of these interactions are related to some sort of exchange, normally with the use of a medium of exchange such as money, and sometimes to a direct exchange of services. Individuals purchase goods and services for final consumption and provide the inputs into production – land, labour and capital. We refer to these individuals collectively as ‘households’. The organizations which buy these factors and use them to produce goods and services are referred to collectively as ‘firms’.

The amount of interaction between households and firms – the amount of buying and selling which takes place – represents the level of economic activity. The more buying and selling there are, the higher the level of economic activity. Households and firms engaging in production and exchange in a particular geographic region are together referred to as the economy.

Economics studies the interactions between households and firms in relation to exchange and the many decisions which are made in so doing. It also covers situations where some output is produced without the receipt of an income, such as the work done by unpaid carers and homemakers. It explores how people make a living; how resources are allocated among the many different uses they could be put to; and the way in which our activities influence not only our own well-being but also that of others and the environment.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Economic Problem

There are three questions that any economy must face:

  • What goods and services should be produced?
  • How should these goods and services be produced?
  • Who should get the goods and services that have been produced?
    To satisfy these questions, economies have resources at their disposal which are classified as land, labour and capital.
  • Land – all the natural resources of the earth. This includes mineral deposits such as iron ore, coal, gold and copper; oil and gas; fish in the sea; and all the food and raw materials produced from the land.
  • Labour – the human effort, both mental and physical, that goes into production. A worker in a factory producing precision tools, an investment banker, an unpaid carer, a road sweeper, a teacher – these are all forms of labour.
  • Capital – the equipment and structures used to produce goods and services. Capital goods include machinery in factories, buildings, tractors, computers, cooking ovens – anything where the good is not used for its own sake but for the contribution it makes to production.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Scarcity and Choice

It is often assumed that these resources are ultimately scarce in relation to the demand for them. As members of households, we invariably do not have the ability to meet all our wants and needs. Our needs are the necessities of life which enable us to survive – food and water, clothing, shelter and proper health care – and our wants are the things which we believe make for a more comfortable and enjoyable life holidays, different styles of clothes, smartphones, leisure activities, the furniture and items we have in our houses, and so on. Our demand for these wants and needs is generally greater than our ability to satisfy them. Scarcity means that society has limited resources and theretore cannot produce all the goods and services households demand. Just as a household cannot give every member everything they want, a society cannot give every individual the highest standard of living to which they might aspire. Because of the tension between our wants and needs and scarcity, decisions must be made by households and firms about how to allocate our incomes and resources to meet our wants and needs.

Economics investigates the issues arising due to the decisions that households and firms make as a result of this tension. A typical textbook definition of economics is ‘the study of how society makes choices in managing its scarce resources and the consequences of this decision-making’. This definition can, however, mask the complexity and extent of the reach of economics. We might characterize households as having unlimited wants, but not everyone in society is materialistic, which the idea of unlimited wants might imply. Some people are more content with the simple things in life and their choices are based on what they see as being important. These choices are no less valid but reflect the complexity of the subject. Some people choose to maintain their standard of living through crime. A decision to resort to crime has reasons and consequences, and these may be of as much interest to an economist as the reasons why firms choose to advertise their products or why central banks make decisions on monetary policy.

Some might point out that the very idea of scarcity should be questioned in some instances. In Greece, Spain and some other European countries, there are millions of people who want to work but who cannot find a job. It could be argued that labour is not scarce in this situation, but job vacancies certainly are. Economists will be interested in how such a situation arises and what might be done to alleviate the issues that arise as a result of high levels of unemployment.

The study of economics, therefore, has many facets but there are some central ideas which help define the field even though economics draws on related disciplines such as psychology, sociology, law, anthropology, geography, statistics and maths, among others. These central ideas provide themes around which this book is based, and which form the basis of many first-year undergraduate degree courses.

经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|What Is Economics

微观经济学代考

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Economy and Economic Systems

每天,全世界有数十亿人在做决定。他们决定提供生活中的基本要素,例如食物、衣服和住所,以及如何利用非工作时间进行休闲和家务。做出这些决定涉及与其他人、政府和商业组织的互动。在任何时候,个人都可以是母亲、父亲、儿子、女儿、照顾者、雇主、雇员、家务工人、生产者、消费者、储蓄者、纳税人或福利接受者。这些交互中的许多(但不是全部)都与某种交换有关,通常使用货币等交换媒介,有时也与服务的直接交换有关。个人为最终消费购买商品和服务,并提供生产投入——土地、劳动力和资本。我们将这些人统称为“家庭”。购买这些要素并使用它们生产商品和服务的组织统称为“公司”。

家庭和企业之间的互动量——发生的买卖量——代表了经济活动的水平。买卖越多,经济活动水平就越高。在特定地理区域从事生产和交换的家庭和公司统称为经济体。

经济学研究家庭和公司之间在交换方面的相互作用以及在此过程中做出的许多决策。它还涵盖了某些产出在没有收入的情况下产生的情况,例如无偿照顾者和家庭主妇所做的工作。它探讨了人们如何谋生;资源如何在它们可以用于的许多不同用途之间分配;以及我们的活动不仅影响我们自己的福祉,而且影响他人和环境的福祉的方式。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Economic Problem

任何经济体都必须面对三个问题:

  • 应该生产什么商品和服务?
  • 这些商品和服务应该如何生产?
  • 谁应该得到已经生产出来的商品和服务?
    为了解决这些问题,经济体拥有可支配的资源,这些资源被归类为土地、劳动力和资本。
  • 土地——地球上所有的自然资源。这包括铁矿石、煤、金和铜等矿藏;油和气; 海里的鱼;以及从土地上生产的所有食物和原材料。
  • 劳动——投入生产的人力,包括脑力和体力。生产精密工具的工厂的工人、投资银行家、无偿照顾者、道路清洁工、教师——这些都是劳动形式。
  • 资本——用于生产商品和服务的设备和结构。资本货物包括工厂中的机器、建筑物、拖拉机、电脑、烤箱——这些货物不是为了自身而使用,而是为了它对生产的贡献。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Scarcity and Choice

人们通常假设这些资源最终相对于对它们的需求来说是稀缺的。作为家庭成员,我们总是没有能力满足我们所有的需求。我们的需求是使我们能够生存的生活必需品——食物和水、衣服、住所和适当的医疗保健——我们的需求是我们认为能让假期生活更加舒适和愉快的东西、不同风格的衣服、智能手机,休闲活动,我们家中的家具和物品,等等。我们对这些需求的需求通常大于我们满足它们的能力。稀缺意味着社会资源有限,因此无法生产家庭所需的所有商品和服务。就像一个家庭不能给每个成员他们想要的一切一样,一个社会不可能为每个人提供他们可能渴望的最高生活标准。由于我们的需求和稀缺性之间的紧张关系,家庭和公司必须决定如何分配我们的收入和资源以满足我们的需求。

经济学研究由于这种紧张局势而家庭和公司做出的决定所引起的问题。经济学的典型教科书定义是“研究社会如何在管理其稀缺资源时做出选择以及这种决策的后果”。然而,这个定义可能掩盖了经济学影响范围的复杂性和范围。我们可以将家庭描述为拥有无限的需求,但并非社会中的每个人都是物质主义者,无限需求的想法可能暗示了这一点。有些人更满足于生活中的简单事物,他们的选择是基于他们认为重要的事情。这些选择同样有效,但反映了主题的复杂性。有些人选择通过犯罪来维持他们的生活水平。诉诸犯罪的决定有原因和后果,

有些人可能会指出,在某些情况下,稀缺的概念本身就应该受到质疑。在希腊、西班牙和其他一些欧洲国家,有数百万人想工作但找不到工作。可以说,在这种情况下劳动力并不稀缺,但职位空缺肯定是。经济学家将对这种情况是如何产生的,以及可以采取哪些措施来缓解高失业率导致的问题感兴趣。

因此,经济学研究有很多方面,但有一些中心思想有助于定义该领域,尽管经济学借鉴了相关学科,如心理学、社会学、法律、人类学、地理学、统计学和数学等。这些中心思想提供了本书所依据的主题,并且构成了许多本科一年级课程的基础。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构,多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务,包括但不限于Essay代写,Assignment代写,Dissertation代写,Report代写,小组作业代写,Proposal代写,Paper代写,Presentation代写,计算机作业代写,论文修改和润色,网课代做,exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中,本科,研究生等海外留学全阶段,辐射金融,经济学,会计学,审计学,管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者,也有海外名校硕博留学生,每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力,专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创,100%专业,100%准时,100%满意。

随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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