### 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|ECO202

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The General Wage Level

In the classical approach the level of the real wage rate ${ }^{10}$ is determined by a complex of social, demographic and economic circumstances, which can be classified in two groups.

A first group comprises those institutional and conventional elements that establish the level of the real wage considered normal in the period and in the society under discussion. This wage level, that the classical economists call ‘natural’ or ‘subsistence wage’, is the value of the ‘necessaries’, the consumptions indispensable to the worker’s physical survival, capacity to work and reproduction, and also indispensable in the common (and historically specific) opinion of society for the worker’s social role and membership in the social structure. A quotation from Adam Smith illustrates this perspective:

By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without. A linen shirt, for example, is, strictly speaking, not a necessary of life. The Greeks and Romans lived, I suppose, very comfortably though they had no linen. But in the present times, through the greater part of Europe, a creditable day-labourer would be ashamed to appear in public without a linen shirt, the want of which would be supposed to denote that disgraceful degree of poverty which, it is presumed, nobody can well fall into without extreme bad conduct. Custom, in the same manner, has rendered leather shoes a necessary of life in England. The poorest creditable person of either sex would be ashamed to appear in public without them. In Scotland, custom has rendered them a necessary of life to the lowest order of men; but not to the same order of women, who may, without any discredit, walk about barefooted. In France they are necessaries neither to men nor to women, the lowest rank of both sexes appearing there publicly, without any discredit, sometimes in wooden shoes, and sometimes barefooted. Under necessaries, therefore, I comprehend not only those things which nature, but those things which the established rules of decency have rendered neeessary to the lowest rank of people. (Wealth of Natlons, 1776, Bk V, Ch. 2, Part II, Article IV, Section “Taxes upon Consumable Commodities”; pp. 351-2 in the Dent and Dutton ed., Everyman’s Library, vol. II, 1971 (1910). To help readers with different editions, it is customary to locate passages in The Wealth of Nations by indicating Book, Chapter and paragraph or Section.)

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Relative Wages

So far we have spoken of labour as if homogeneous, ${ }^{17}$ with a single wage rate. Classical authors of course know that there are different kinds of labour, with differences in wage rates, and do discuss what determines these differences. Here too, a main reference is Adam Smith. He argues:

The five following are the principal circumstances which, so far as I have been able to observe, make up for a small pecuniary gain in some employments, and counterbalance a great one in others: first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and, fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them (Smith, WN, I, x, I, 1: that is, Book I, Ch. X, Part I, par. 1).

Particularly interesting is the fourth circumstance, on which Smith adds: ‘We trust our health to the physician, our fortune and sometimes our life and reputation to the lawyer and attorney. Such confidence could not safely be reposed in people of a very mean and low condition. Their reward must be such, therefore, as may give them that rank in the society which so important a trust requires’ (WN, I, x, I, 19). (The complex sociological views behind these lines are still waiting for insertion into microeconomic theory.)

These circumstances render the ratios between wages very persistent, Smith argues, and a similar persistence exists for the differences in normal rates of profits:

) The proportion between the different rates both of wages and profit in the different employments of labour and stock, ${ }^{18}$ seems not to be much affected … by the riches or poverty, the advancing, stationary, or declining state of the society. Such revolutions in the public welfare, though they affect the general rates both of wages and profit, must in the end affect them equally in all different employments. The proportion between them, therefore, must remain the same, and cannot well be altered, at least for any considerable time, by any such revolution (WN, I, x, last par.; 1975 , p. 130).

Thus it is possible, according to Smith, to treat relative wage rates (the ‘proportion’ between wage rates) as given when attempting the determination of the other incomes and also when analysing the effects of forces that influence the general level of wages; analogous considerations apply to relative rates of profit.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Relative Wages

）在不同的劳动和股票的不同用途中，工资和利润的不同比率之间的比例，18似乎并没有受到太大的影响……无论贫富，社会的进步、静止或衰退状态。公共福利方面的这种革命，虽然它们影响工资和利润的一般比率，但最终必须在所有不同的就业中平等地影响它们。因此，它们之间的比例必须保持不变，并且至少在相当长的一段时间内都不能被任何这样的革命很好地改变（WN, I, x, last par.; 1975, p. 130）。

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。