### 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|ECO211

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Adaptability of Production to Demand

The Keynesian-Kaleckian approach gives central role to the tendency of production to adjust to demand. This requires a flexibility of production, a capacity not only to reduce production, but also to increase it if demand increases, even considerably, and in relatively short time spans, weeks or at most months, that is, without needing first to enlarge productive capacity by building new plants. (We are now admitting durable capital goods too, as realism requires. The principle of effective demand remains perfectly valid.) What makes such a short-period upward flexibility of production possible?

The reason is the possibility to vary the degree of utilization of plants, increasing production from the same fixed plants by utilizing them for more hours per week; the existence of inventories of raw materials and of other circulating capital goods makes an initial increase of production possible, until the increase of production by the firms producing those raw materials and goods makes it possible to reconstitute those inventories. The economy behaves accordion-like, with the sectors where the increase in demand first arrives first increasing production and reducing their inventories of intermediate goods, and then their suppliers in turn increasing production and transmitting the increase to their suppliers, and so on.

As we will see in greater detail in $\$ Chap. 12, in most industries a considerable increase of production is perfectly possible, by increasing the number of hours per week the plant is operated; in emergency situations (e.g. a catastrophe, or war), even by working the weekends too and by introducing one more labour shift, passing, say, from 8 to $16 \mathrm{~h}$ of plant utilization per day. Even the very few firms with continuous production processes, e.g. iron furnaces, do not work at full capacity at all hours; furnaces are never shut off but raw materials are processed only in the amounts required to satisfy demand, the monthly production flow is generally considerably below the maximum possible one. Therefore the kinds of production increase from the same fixed plants that variations in aggregate demand can cause, say $10 \%$ more yearly production, appear perfectly possible. Over longer periods it will be convenient to expand productive capacity by building additional plant and thus reduce the need to pay higher wages for overtime or night shifts; but in the short period, considerable variations of production from the given plant will be implemented with no difficulty if demand makes them convenient. A constraint might come from lack of availability of extra labour; but generally market economies suffer from overt or hidden unemployment, and for short periods the already employed workers too will be generally ready to do overtime work if adequately paid. Over longer periods there are labour migrations and changes in the habits of the population (e.g. women can increase their participation to the labour market, or retirement age can be modified) that adapt labour supply to demand.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Matrix Representation

This chapter presents a more mathematical treatment of the theory of long-period prices or natural prices or prices of production, supplying more rigorous support for their properties stated in the previous chapter, and adding other important issues: Leontief models, choice of technique, re-switching, simple fixed capital (general joint production, and land rent in multisector models, are discussed in Chap. 10 ).

The analysis presented in this chapter is relevant beyond the classical approach. The notion of long-period prices is important independently of whether one adopts the classical or some other approach. The thesis that in a competitive economy relative product prices gravitate toward long-period normal levels characterized by a uniform rate of return on the supply price of capital goods is also found in Marshall, Jevons, Walras, Wicksell, Samuelson…; although somewhat obscured by recent general equilibrium theory, this notion continues to dominate applied economics, and it is more and more reasserting its centrality also in theoretical work.

The present chapter uses matrices; the reader must know the basic elements of linear algebra, matrix theory, and complex numbers, as generally taught in the basic mathematics-for-economists undergraduate course; the chapter supplies the necessary minimal elements to understand eigenvalues and the Perron-Frobenius theorem.

Unless otherwise explicitly indicated, vectors are to be intended as column vectors, but once a vector is defined as a row vector then its symbol is not accom-panied by a transposition superscript T. Price vectors are generally row vectors, and quantity vectors are column vectors.

I consider an economy where production is in yearly cycles, and all produced means of production are circulating capital goods, i.e. goods which when used as inputs disappear in the course of a single year. I assume no joint production (i.e. each production method produces a single output), and only one type of labour. Land is overabundant, hence a free good which we need not explicitly include among the inputs.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|The Adaptability of Production to Demand

Keynesian-Kaleckian 方法赋予生产以适应需求调整的趋势的核心作用。这需要生产的灵活性，不仅要减少产 量，而且在需求增加时增加产量，甚至在相当短的时间内，几周或最多几个月，也就是说，不需要首先扩大生产 能力通过建造新工厂。(我们现在也承认耐用资本品，这是现实主义所要求的。有效需求原理仍然完全有效。) 是什么让生产的这种短期向上的灵活性成为可能?

\$Chap. 12, inmostindustriesaconsiderableincreaseofproductionisperfectlypossible, byincreas$16 \backslash \operatorname{mathrm}{\sim \mathrm{h}}$ofplantutilizationperday. Eventhevery few firmswithcontinuousproductionprocesses, e. g. iro 年产量增加$10 \backslash \%\$ ，看起来完全有可能。在较长时期内，通过建造额外的工厂来扩大生产能力会很方便，从而减 少为加班或夜班支付更高工资的需要；但是在短期内，如果需求方便的话，给定工厂的大量生产变化将毫无困难 地实施。限制可能来自缺乏额外劳动力；但一般来说，市场经济会遭受公开或隐性失业的困扰，而且在短期内， 如果有足够的报酬，已经就业的工人通常也愿意加班。在较长时期内会出现劳动力迁移和人口习惯的变化 (例 如，妇女可以增加对劳动力市场的参与，

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。