### 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|ECON201

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|‘Core’ and‘Out-of-Core’ Analyses in the Surplus Approach

On the basis of what we have learned on the determinants of the real wage rate, of the quantities produced, and of the methods of production according to classical authors, it is possible to point out an aspect of the classical method of analysis that sharply distinguishes the classical approach from the marginal/neoclassical approach. The latter approach, as will be explained in Chaps. 3-9, argues that prices, income distribution, quantities produced, resources utilized are determined simultaneously and interdependently by the forces of supply and demand; deductive reasoning based on this interdependence allows univocal conclusions, e.g. on the effects of a change in the real wage on the demand for labour and on the general level of production. The scope of purely deductive reasoning is much less wide in the classical approach. Deductive reasoning holds full sway only in that part of the classical general analysis that has been called its analytical ‘core’ by Garegnani $(1984,1990 b)^{71}$ : the determination of the rate of profit on the basis of given real wage rate(s), given quantities produced, and given methods of production, and the comparative-statics study of the effects of changes in these data on the rate of profit. In the study of what determines these magnitudes and of the reciprocal influences among them, the classical approach admits such an importance of historical, social and political influences that the analysis must be much more inductive, attentive to historical specificities, and generally incapable of arriving on a purely deductive basis at univocal predictions analogous to those reachable in the marginal approach.

One can accordingly distinguish two different types of analysis in classical explanations and predictions. The analyses of the determinants of one or more of the data of the ‘core’ (real wages, quantities produced, technical conditions of production) are ‘out of the core’ analyses, rich in historically specific details and open to a variety of influences; the analysis of the effects of each such change on the rate of profit and relative prices is ‘core’ analysis, strictly deductive, and provisionally treating the other data in the ‘core’ as given and unaffected by the initial change; the analyses of the influences of these changes (both the direct influences, and the indirect ones operating through the change in profit rate and relative prices) on the other data of the ‘core’ are again ‘out of the core’ analyses and can also include an ‘out of the core’ analysis of repercussions on the magnitude(s) that changed first, or a second round of ‘core’ analysis if the other data of the ‘core’ are significantly affected to the point of requiring a new examination of the effects on the rate of profit.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Going Beyond Marx on What Determines Aggregate

The main purpose of the present chapter is to make clear to readers acquainted (or who risk becoming acquainted) only with the marginal/neoclassical approach that there is an alternative way of looking at the functioning of capitalist economies, with a long tradition behind it. Its presentation can appear to go beyond microeconomics to typically macroeconomic issues that concern the working of the entire economy; but the same objection might be advanced against the presence in microeconomics textbooks of neoclassical general equilibrium theory, which can be seen as an eminently macroeconomic theory, since it studies how certain assumptions about the behaviour of individual agents produce economy-wide results. The classical approach too makes assumptions about individual agents, e.g. that workers try to act collectively to raise wages; that capitalists collude to counter the workers’s requests; that capitalists invest to prevent their competitors from growing faster than them and to become more competitive by better exploiting scale economies; that investment goes in a greater proportion to the fields where the expected rate of return is higher; that a bankruptcy can cause further bankruptcies, etcetera. To ask about the overall effects of these microbehaviours is as legitimate for the classical as for the neoclassical approach.

An important overall effect is the general level of economic activity resulting from these microbehaviours. Here one must admit that the treatment of this issue by the classical economists, Marx included, is not very satisfactory. Subsequent empirical episodes such as the Great Crisis of the 1930 s, or the recession of 1973 and following years, or the nearly zero growth rate of Japan for ten years after 1990 , or the 2008 financial crisis, have confirmed Marx’s belief that capitalist economies are subject to crises and that labour unemployment and underutilization of plants can be high for many years in a row. Say’s Law appears refuted by the evidence. But this makes it necessary to have a theory of what determines quantities produced and labour employment. Not even Marx gets close to a satisfactory such theory; he does grasp the possibility of non-correspondence between saving decisions and investment decisions; but he seems to have considered economic crises as episodes (even violent and long-lasting) that periodically interrupt an accumulation process of Ricardian type; he concentrates on the causes of these interruptions, without attempting to reach a theory of the level around which the social product gravitates when-for any reason-investment remains for a considerable time below the level required to absorb all the savings that would be forthcoming if the social product were at the Ricardian, normal-capacity-utilization level. So Marx’s admission of obstacles to accumulation (for example, difficulties with selling the potential production of consumption goods owing to the tendency of capitalism to compress wages) has unclear implications for growth over longer periods; whenever there isn’t a crisis, Marx’s picture seems to be one of growth as supply-determined, ${ }^{72}$ or if you like profit-determined: a higher rate of profit (lower real wages) favours growth, because it raises profits and hence savings and therefore investment; and capitalists do want to reinvest profits and to grow, because competition tends to eliminate the smaller capitalists. But what happens when this push towards reinvestment of profits meets obstacles remains unclear, apart from a suggestion that a crisis will unleash.

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。