经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|How People Make Decisions

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经济学是研究稀缺性及其对资源的使用、商品和服务的生产、生产和福利的长期增长的影响,以及对社会至关重要的其他大量复杂问题的研究。

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我们提供的Economics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|How People Make Decisions

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|People Face Trade-offs

Households and firms must make choices. Making choices involves trade-offs. A trade-off is the loss of the benefits from a decision to forego or sacrifice one option, balanced against the benefits incurred from the choice made. When choosing between alternatives we must consider the benefits gained from choosing one course of action but recognize that we must forego the benefits that could arise from the alternatives. To get one thing we like, we usually must give up another thing that we might also like. Making decisions, therefore, requires trading off the benefits of one action against those of another.

Example 1 Consider an economics undergraduate student who must decide how to allocate their time. They can spend all of their time studying, which will bring benefits such as a better class of degree; they can spend all their time enjoying leisure activities, which yield different benefits; or they can divide their time between the two. For every hour they study, they give up the benefits of an hour they could have devoted to spending time in the gym, riding a bicycle, watching TV, sleeping or working at a part-time job for some extra spending money. The student must trade-off the benefits from studying against the benefits of using their time in other ways.

Example 2 A firm might be faced with the decision on whether to invest in a new product or a new accounting system. Bóth bring benefits – the new ppoduct might result in improved revenues and prófits in the future, and the accounting system may make it more effective in controlling its costs, thus helping its profits. If scarce investment funds are put into the accounting system, the firm must trade-off the benefits that the new product investment would have brought.

Example 3 When people are grouped into societies, they face different kinds of trade-offs which can highlight the interaction of individuals and firms within society in general. An example is the trade-off between a clean environment and a high level of income. Laws that require firms to reduce pollution raise the cost of producing goods and services. Because of the higher costs, firms can end up earning smaller profits, paying lower wages, charging higher prices, or some combination of these three. Thus, while pollution regulations give us the benefit of a cleaner environment and the improved levels of health that come with it, they can have the cost of reducing the incomes of the firms’ owners, workers and customers.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Efficiency and Equity

Efficiency and Equity An important trade-off that has interested economists for many years is the tradeoff between efficiency and equity. In economics, efficiency deals with ways in which society gets the most it can (depending how this is defined) from its scarce resources. An outcome can be identified as being efficient by some measure, but not necessarily desirable. Equity looks at the extent to which the benefits of outcomes are distributed fairly among society’s members. Often, when government policies are being designed, these two goals conflict. Because equity is about ‘fairness’ it inevitably involves value judgements. Differences in opinion lead to disagreements among policymakers and economists.

There are some economists who dismiss the idea of a trade-off between equity and efficiency as a myth in some contexts, because the idea has been generalized to all situations. The historical context and origins of many economic ideas are important to understand. The origins of the equity and efficiency tradeoff came from Arthur Okun in the 1970 s. There are some economists who argue that improving equality can lead to improvements in efficiency – in effect that it is possible to have a bigger cake and to eat it.
Policies aimed at achieving a more equal distribution of economic well-being, such as the social security system, involve a trade-off between the effects of a benefits system versus the effects on the efficiency of the tax system that pays for it. A government decision to raise the top rate of income tax on what it considers ‘the very rich’ but to abolish income tax for those earning the minimum wage is effectively a redistribution of income from the rich to the poor. It provides incentive effects for some in society to seek work, but may reduce the reward for working hard, so some in society choose to work less or even move to another country where the tax system is less onerous. Whether the trade-off is a ‘good’ thing is dependent on the philosophy, belief sets and opinions of the decision-makers, and the power which they have in society. Recognizing that people face trade-offs does not by itself tell us what decisions they will or should make. Acknowledging and understanding the consequences of trade-offs is important, because people are likely to make more informed decisions if they understand the options they have available.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Opportunity Cost

Because people face trade-offs, making decisions requires comparing the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action. In many cases, however, the costs of an action are not as obvious as might first appear.
Consider, for example, the decision whether to go to university. The benefits are intellectual enrichment and a lifetime of better job opportunities. In considering the costs, you might be tempted to add up the money you spend on tuition fees, resources and living expenses over the period of the degree. This approach is intuitive and might be a way in which non-economists would approach the decision. An economist would point out that even if you decided to leave full-time education, you would still incur living cxpcnscs and so thcsc costs would bc incurrcd in any cvent. Accommodation bccomcs a cost of highcr education only if it is more expensive at university than elsewhere.

This calculation of costs ignores the largest cost of a university education – your time. For most students, the wages given up attending university are the largest single cost of their higher education. When making decisions it is sometimes more helpful to measure the cost in terms of what other options have had to be sacrificed rather than in money terms. Opportunity cost is the measure of the options sacrificed in making a decision. The opportunity cost of going to university is the wages from full-time work that you have had to sacrifice.

经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|How People Make Decisions

微观经济学代考

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|People Face Trade-offs

家庭和公司必须做出选择。做出选择涉及权衡。权衡是放弃或牺牲一个选择的决定所带来的利益损失,与做出的选择所产生的利益相平衡。在备选方案之间进行选择时,我们必须考虑从选择一种行动方案中获得的好处,但要认识到我们必须放弃替代方案可能产生的好处。为了得到一件我们喜欢的东西,我们通常必须放弃另一件我们可能也喜欢的东西。因此,做出决定需要权衡一项行动的利益与另一项行动的利益。

例 1 考虑一个经济学本科生,他必须决定如何分配他们的时间。他们可以把所有的时间都花在学习上,这将带来更好的学位等级等好处;他们可以把所有的时间都花在休闲活动上,带来不同的好处;或者他们可以在两者之间分配时间。每学习一小时,他们就放弃了原本可以花在健身房、骑自行车、看电视、睡觉或兼职工作的一小时的好处,以换取额外的零花钱。学生必须权衡学习的好处与以其他方式利用时间的好处。

示例 2 公司可能面临是否投资新产品或新会计系统的决定。两者都带来了好处——新产品可能会在未来带来更高的收入和利润,而会计系统可能会使其更有效地控制成本,从而帮助其盈利。如果将稀缺的投资资金投入会计系统,公司必须权衡新产品投资可能带来的收益。

示例 3 当人们被分组到社会中时,他们面临着不同类型的权衡,这可以突出个人和公司在整个社会中的互动。一个例子是清洁环境和高收入之间的权衡。要求企业减少污染的法律提高了生产商品和服务的成本。由于成本较高,公司最终可能会赚取较少的利润、支付较低的工资、收取较高的价格,或者这三者的某种组合。因此,虽然污染法规给我们带来了更清洁的环境和随之而来的健康水平的提高,但它们可能会降低公司所有者、工人和客户的收入。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Efficiency and Equity

效率与公平 多年来经济学家感兴趣的一个重要权衡是效率与公平之间的权衡。在经济学中,效率涉及社会从其稀缺资源中获得最大可能(取决于如何定义)的方式。某种结果可以被确定为有效的,但不一定是可取的。公平关注结果的利益在社会成员之间公平分配的程度。通常,在设计政府政策时,这两个目标会发生冲突。因为公平是关于“公平”,它不可避免地涉及价值判断。意见分歧导致政策制定者和经济学家之间的分歧。

在某些情况下,有些经济学家认为公平和效率之间的权衡是一个神话,因为这个想法已经推广到所有情况。了解许多经济思想的历史背景和起源很重要。公平和效率权衡的起源来自 1970 年代的 Arthur Okun。有一些经济学家认为,改善平等可以提高效率——实际上是可以吃到更大的蛋糕。
旨在实现更平等分配经济福利的政策,例如社会保障制度,涉及在福利制度的影响与对支付福利的税收制度效率的影响之间进行权衡。政府决定对它认为的“非常富有”的人提高所得税的最高税率,但取消对那些赚取最低工资的人的所得税,这实际上是将收入从富人重新分配给穷人。它为社会上的一些人寻找工作提供了激励作用,但可能会减少努力工作的回报,因此社会上的一些人选择减少工作,甚至搬到另一个税收制度不那么繁重的国家。权衡是否是“好”的事情取决于决策者的理念、信念和意见,以及他们在社会中的权力。认识到人们面临权衡取舍本身并不能告诉我们他们将或应该做出什么决定。承认和理解权衡的后果很重要,因为如果人们了解他们可用的选项,他们可能会做出更明智的决定。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Opportunity Cost

由于人们面临权衡取舍,因此做出决策需要比较替代行动方案的成本和收益。然而,在许多情况下,行动的成本并不像最初看起来那样明显。
例如,考虑是否上大学的决定。好处是智力丰富和一生更好的工作机会。在考虑成本时,你可能会想把在学位期间花在学费、资源和生活费上的钱加起来。这种方法很直观,可能是非经济学家处理决策的一种方式。经济学家会指出,即使您决定放弃全日制教育,您仍然会产生生活成本,因此任何成本都会产生成本。只有在大学比其他地方更贵的情况下,住宿才会成为高等教育的成本。

这种成本计算忽略了大学教育的最大成本——你的时间。对于大多数学生来说,放弃上大学的工资是他们接受高等教育的最大单项成本。在做出决定时,有时根据必须牺牲的其他选项而不是金钱来衡量成本更有帮助。机会成本是衡量做出决定时所牺牲的选项的量度。上大学的机会成本是你不得不牺牲的全职工作的工资。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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