### 经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|WHY ECONOMISTS DISAGREE

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Scientific Judgements

History shows us that there have always been disagreements between scientists about ‘truth’ and reality. In 1964, for example, Peter Higgs at the University of Edinburgh had his original paper on the theoretical model predicting what came to be known as the Higgs Boson, rejected by the journal Physics Lectures, which saw the theory as having ‘little relevance to physics’. In 2012, the experiments at Cern in Switzerland confirmed the existence of the Higgs Boson, and in 2013, Professor Higgs was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. Science is a search for understanding about the world around us. It is not surprising that as the search continues, scientists can disagree about the direction in which truth lies.

Economists often disagree for the same reason. Economics is a young science, and there is still much to be learned. Indeed, there are some who argue that economics can never be a true ‘science’ because processes that are considered appropriate and necessary in natural sciences cannot be applied to economics, because it deals with human behaviour. Humans cannot be subjected to the same controls and comparisons that can be used in physics, for example.

Economists sometimes disagree because they have different beliefs about the validity of alternative theories or about the size of important parameters. For example, economists disagree about whether the government should levy taxes based on a household’s income or based on its consumption (spending). Advocates of a switch from an income tax to a consumption tax believe that the change would encourage households to save more, because income that is saved would not be taxed. Higher saving, in turn, would lead to more rapid growth in productivity and living standards. Advocates of an income tax system believe that household saving would not respond much to a change in the tax laws. These two groups of economists hold different normative views about the tax system because they have different positive views about the responsiveness of saving to tax incentives.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Values

Anneka and Henrik both take water from the town well. To pay for maintaining the well, the town imposes a property tax on its residents. Anneka lives in a large house worth $€ 2$ million and pays a property tax of $€ 10,000$ a year. Henrik owns a small cottage worth $€ 20,000$ and pays a property tax of $€ 1,000$ a year.

Is this policy fair? If not, who pays too much and who pays too little? Would it be better to replace the tax based on the value of the property with a tax that was just a single payment from everyone living in the town (a poll tax) in return for using the well – say, $€ 1,000$ a year? After all, Anneka lives on her own and uses much less water than Henrik and the other four members of his family who live with him and use more water as a result. Would that be a fairer policy?

This raises two interesting questions in economics – how do we define words like ‘fair’ and ‘unfair’, and who holds the power to influence and make decisions? If the power is in the hands of certain groups in government or powerful businesses, policies may be adopted even if they are widely perceived as being ‘unfair’.

What about replacing the property tax, not with a poll tax but with an income tax? Anneka has an income of $€ 100,000$ a year so that a 5 per cent income tax would present her with a tax bill of $€ 5,000 .$ Henrik, on the other hand, has an income of only $€ 10,000$ a year and so would pay only $€ 500$ a year in tax, and the members of his family who do not work don’t pay any income tax. Does it matter whether Henrik’s low income is due to his decision not to go to university, and take a low paid job? Would it matter if it were due to a physical disability? Does it matter whether Anneka’s high income is due to a large inheritance from her family? What if it were due to her willingness to work long hours at a dreary job?

These are difficult questions on which people are likely to disagree. If the town hired two experts to study how the town should tax its residents to pay for the well, we should not be surprised if they offered conflicting advice.

This simple example shows why economists sometimes disagree about public policy. As we learned earlier in our discussion of normative and positive analysis, policies cannot be judged on scientific grounds alone. Economists give conflicting advice sometimes because they have different values.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Decision-Making in Economics

It could be said that economics is the science of decision-making. The way that economists go about making or recommending decisions involves, first, identifying the problem or issue. For example, greenhouse gas emissions are a contributory factor in climate change. Note that this is a premise which is assumed to be ‘true’. One answer to this problem is a decision to cut the emissions of greenhouse gases. The next stage is to look at the costs and benefits involved in the decision. These costs and benefits are not just the private costs and benefits to individuals, firms and organizations; they will also include the costs and benefits to third parties who are not directly involved in the actual decision. For example, cutting greenhouse gas emissions means that resources will have to be diverted to new ways of production or different ways of producing energy. The private costs will be those borne by the businesses that will have to implement measures to adhere to the limits placed upon them. The social costs might include the impact on local people of the construction of wind farms or new nuclear power stations.

Having identified the costs and benefits, the economist then seeks to place a value on them to get some idea of the relationship between the costs and benefits of making the decision. In some cases, valuing costs and benefits can be easy, but many are much more challenging. The loss of visual amenity for a resident living near a wind turbine or the value of the possible loss of life from a nuclear catastrophe at a power plant, for example, may be very difficult to value. Economists have attempted to devise ways in which these values can be estimated, but they are not perfect.

Once the sum of the costs and benefits is calculated, the decision then becomes clearer. If the cost outweighs the benefit then making the decision may be unwise, but if the costs are less than the benefits, then it may mean the decision can be supported. Policymakers may want to look at the extent to which the costs outweigh the benefit, or the benefit outweighs the costs. Every day millions of decisions are made by individuals, businesses and governments. While not every one of these decisions will be made using the exact processes outlined above, and many of us certainly do not stop to think about how we rationalize our decisions, nevertheless our brains do engage in computational processes as we make decisions, but they are mostly subconscious. Economists and psychologists are increasingly finding out more about how humans make decisions, which is helping improve our understanding of the models which we use to analyze consumer hehaviour.

## 经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Values

Anneka 和 Henrik 都从镇上的井里取水。为了支付维护井的费用，该镇对其居民征收财产税。安妮卡住在一栋价值不菲的大房子里€€2万元，并缴纳财产税€€10,000一年。亨利克拥有一座价值不菲的小别墅€€20,000并缴纳财产税€€1,000一年。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。