经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|WHY ECONOMISTS DISAGREE

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经济学是研究稀缺性及其对资源的使用、商品和服务的生产、生产和福利的长期增长的影响,以及对社会至关重要的其他大量复杂问题的研究。

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我们提供的Economics及其相关学科的代写,服务范围广, 其中包括但不限于:

  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|WHY ECONOMISTS DISAGREE

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Scientific Judgements

History shows us that there have always been disagreements between scientists about ‘truth’ and reality. In 1964, for example, Peter Higgs at the University of Edinburgh had his original paper on the theoretical model predicting what came to be known as the Higgs Boson, rejected by the journal Physics Lectures, which saw the theory as having ‘little relevance to physics’. In 2012, the experiments at Cern in Switzerland confirmed the existence of the Higgs Boson, and in 2013, Professor Higgs was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. Science is a search for understanding about the world around us. It is not surprising that as the search continues, scientists can disagree about the direction in which truth lies.

Economists often disagree for the same reason. Economics is a young science, and there is still much to be learned. Indeed, there are some who argue that economics can never be a true ‘science’ because processes that are considered appropriate and necessary in natural sciences cannot be applied to economics, because it deals with human behaviour. Humans cannot be subjected to the same controls and comparisons that can be used in physics, for example.

Economists sometimes disagree because they have different beliefs about the validity of alternative theories or about the size of important parameters. For example, economists disagree about whether the government should levy taxes based on a household’s income or based on its consumption (spending). Advocates of a switch from an income tax to a consumption tax believe that the change would encourage households to save more, because income that is saved would not be taxed. Higher saving, in turn, would lead to more rapid growth in productivity and living standards. Advocates of an income tax system believe that household saving would not respond much to a change in the tax laws. These two groups of economists hold different normative views about the tax system because they have different positive views about the responsiveness of saving to tax incentives.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Values

Anneka and Henrik both take water from the town well. To pay for maintaining the well, the town imposes a property tax on its residents. Anneka lives in a large house worth $€ 2$ million and pays a property tax of $€ 10,000$ a year. Henrik owns a small cottage worth $€ 20,000$ and pays a property tax of $€ 1,000$ a year.

Is this policy fair? If not, who pays too much and who pays too little? Would it be better to replace the tax based on the value of the property with a tax that was just a single payment from everyone living in the town (a poll tax) in return for using the well – say, $€ 1,000$ a year? After all, Anneka lives on her own and uses much less water than Henrik and the other four members of his family who live with him and use more water as a result. Would that be a fairer policy?

This raises two interesting questions in economics – how do we define words like ‘fair’ and ‘unfair’, and who holds the power to influence and make decisions? If the power is in the hands of certain groups in government or powerful businesses, policies may be adopted even if they are widely perceived as being ‘unfair’.

What about replacing the property tax, not with a poll tax but with an income tax? Anneka has an income of $€ 100,000$ a year so that a 5 per cent income tax would present her with a tax bill of $€ 5,000 .$ Henrik, on the other hand, has an income of only $€ 10,000$ a year and so would pay only $€ 500$ a year in tax, and the members of his family who do not work don’t pay any income tax. Does it matter whether Henrik’s low income is due to his decision not to go to university, and take a low paid job? Would it matter if it were due to a physical disability? Does it matter whether Anneka’s high income is due to a large inheritance from her family? What if it were due to her willingness to work long hours at a dreary job?

These are difficult questions on which people are likely to disagree. If the town hired two experts to study how the town should tax its residents to pay for the well, we should not be surprised if they offered conflicting advice.

This simple example shows why economists sometimes disagree about public policy. As we learned earlier in our discussion of normative and positive analysis, policies cannot be judged on scientific grounds alone. Economists give conflicting advice sometimes because they have different values.

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Decision-Making in Economics

It could be said that economics is the science of decision-making. The way that economists go about making or recommending decisions involves, first, identifying the problem or issue. For example, greenhouse gas emissions are a contributory factor in climate change. Note that this is a premise which is assumed to be ‘true’. One answer to this problem is a decision to cut the emissions of greenhouse gases. The next stage is to look at the costs and benefits involved in the decision. These costs and benefits are not just the private costs and benefits to individuals, firms and organizations; they will also include the costs and benefits to third parties who are not directly involved in the actual decision. For example, cutting greenhouse gas emissions means that resources will have to be diverted to new ways of production or different ways of producing energy. The private costs will be those borne by the businesses that will have to implement measures to adhere to the limits placed upon them. The social costs might include the impact on local people of the construction of wind farms or new nuclear power stations.

Having identified the costs and benefits, the economist then seeks to place a value on them to get some idea of the relationship between the costs and benefits of making the decision. In some cases, valuing costs and benefits can be easy, but many are much more challenging. The loss of visual amenity for a resident living near a wind turbine or the value of the possible loss of life from a nuclear catastrophe at a power plant, for example, may be very difficult to value. Economists have attempted to devise ways in which these values can be estimated, but they are not perfect.

Once the sum of the costs and benefits is calculated, the decision then becomes clearer. If the cost outweighs the benefit then making the decision may be unwise, but if the costs are less than the benefits, then it may mean the decision can be supported. Policymakers may want to look at the extent to which the costs outweigh the benefit, or the benefit outweighs the costs. Every day millions of decisions are made by individuals, businesses and governments. While not every one of these decisions will be made using the exact processes outlined above, and many of us certainly do not stop to think about how we rationalize our decisions, nevertheless our brains do engage in computational processes as we make decisions, but they are mostly subconscious. Economists and psychologists are increasingly finding out more about how humans make decisions, which is helping improve our understanding of the models which we use to analyze consumer hehaviour.

经济代写|Microeconomics代考微观经济学代写|WHY ECONOMISTS DISAGREE

微观经济学代考

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Scientific Judgements

历史告诉我们,科学家之间对于“真相”和现实一直存在分歧。例如,1964 年,爱丁堡大学的彼得·希格斯 (Peter Higgs) 发表了关于预测后来被称为希格斯玻色子的理论模型的原始论文,但被《物理学讲座》杂志拒绝,认为该理论“与物理学几乎没有关联” ‘。2012年,瑞士Cern的实验证实了希格斯玻色子的存在,2013年,希格斯教授被联合授予诺贝尔物理学奖。科学是寻求了解我们周围的世界。毫不奇怪,随着搜索的继续,科学家们可能对真理所在的方向存在分歧。

经济学家经常出于同样的原因不同意。经济学是一门年轻的科学,还有很多东西要学。事实上,有些人认为经济学永远不可能是一门真正的“科学”,因为在自然科学中被认为是适当和必要的过程不能应用于经济学,因为它涉及人类行为。例如,人类不能受到可以在物理学中使用的相同控制和比较。

经济学家有时不同意,因为他们对替代理论的有效性或重要参数的大小有不同的看法。例如,对于政府是否应该根据家庭收入或消费(支出)征税,经济学家意见不一。从所得税转向消费税的倡导者认为,这种变化将鼓励家庭增加储蓄,因为储蓄的收入不会被征税。反过来,更高的储蓄将导致生产力和生活水平的更快增长。所得税制度的倡导者认为,家庭储蓄不会对税法的变化做出太大反应。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Differences in Values

Anneka 和 Henrik 都从镇上的井里取水。为了支付维护井的费用,该镇对其居民征收财产税。安妮卡住在一栋价值不菲的大房子里€€2万元,并缴纳财产税€€10,000一年。亨利克拥有一座价值不菲的小别墅€€20,000并缴纳财产税€€1,000一年。

这个政策公平吗?如果不是,谁付出的太多,谁付出的太少?将基于财产价值的税替换为仅由居住在城镇的每个人支付的税(人头税)以换取使用水井,这样会更好吗?€€1,000一年?毕竟,Anneka 独自生活,用水量比 Henrik 和与他住在一起的其他四个家庭成员少得多,因此用水量更多。那会是更公平的政策吗?

这在经济学中提出了两个有趣的问题——我们如何定义“公平”和“不公平”这样的词,以及谁拥有影响和做出决定的权力?如果权力掌握在政府或强大企业中的某些群体手中,即使政策被广泛认为是“不公平的”,也可能会被采纳。

用所得税而不是人头税代替财产税怎么样?安妮卡的收入为€€100,000一年,这样 5% 的所得税就会给她一张税单€€5,000.另一方面,亨里克的收入只有€€10,000一年,所以只付钱€€500一年的税,他的家庭成员不工作,不缴纳任何所得税。Henrik 的低收入是否是由于他决定不上大学并从事低薪工作是否重要?如果它是由于身体残疾有关系吗?安妮卡的高收入是否来自她家族的一大笔遗产,这有关系吗?如果是因为她愿意长时间从事沉闷的工作怎么办?

这些是人们可能不同意的难题。如果该镇聘请了两名专家来研究该镇应如何向居民征税以支付井的费用,如果他们提出相互矛盾的建议,我们不应该感到惊讶。

这个简单的例子说明了为什么经济学家有时不同意公共政策。正如我们在前面讨论规范性分析和积极分析时所了解到的,不能仅根据科学依据来判断政策。经济学家有时会给出相互矛盾的建议,因为他们有不同的价值观。

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写|Decision-Making in Economics

可以说,经济学是一门决策科学。经济学家做出或推荐决策的方式首先涉及识别问题或问题。例如,温室气体排放是气候变化的一个促成因素。请注意,这是一个假设为“真实”的前提。这个问题的一个答案是决定减少温室气体的排放。下一阶段是查看决策所涉及的成本和收益。这些成本和收益不仅仅是个人、公司和组织的私人成本和收益;它们还将包括不直接参与实际决策的第三方的成本和收益。例如,减少温室气体排放意味着必须将资源转用于新的生产方式或不同的能源生产方式。私人成本将由企业承担,这些企业必须采取措施遵守对他们施加的限制。社会成本可能包括建设风电场或新核电站对当地人民的影响。

在确定了成本和收益之后,经济学家会寻求对它们进行评估,以了解做出决策的成本和收益之间的关系。在某些情况下,评估成本和收益可能很容易,但许多情况更具挑战性。例如,居住在风力涡轮机附近的居民的视觉舒适度损失或发电厂核灾难可能造成的生命损失的价值可能很难评估。经济学家试图设计出可以估计这些值的方法,但它们并不完美。

一旦计算了成本和收益的总和,决策就会变得更加清晰。如果成本大于收益,则做出决定可能是不明智的,但如果成本小于收益,则可能意味着该决定可以得到支持。政策制定者可能想看看成本超过收益的程度,或者收益超过成本的程度。每天,数以百万计的决定是由个人、企业和政府做出的。虽然并非每一个决定都会使用上述的确切过程做出,而且我们中的许多人当然不会停下来思考我们如何合理化我们的决定,但我们的大脑在我们做出决定时确实参与了计算过程,但它们是主要是潜意识。经济学家和心理学家越来越多地了解人类如何做出决定,

经济代写|Economics代考微观经济学代写 请认准statistics-lab™

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金融工程代写

金融工程是使用数学技术来解决金融问题。金融工程使用计算机科学、统计学、经济学和应用数学领域的工具和知识来解决当前的金融问题,以及设计新的和创新的金融产品。

非参数统计代写

非参数统计指的是一种统计方法,其中不假设数据来自于由少数参数决定的规定模型;这种模型的例子包括正态分布模型和线性回归模型。

广义线性模型代考

广义线性模型(GLM)归属统计学领域,是一种应用灵活的线性回归模型。该模型允许因变量的偏差分布有除了正态分布之外的其它分布。

术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。

有限元方法代写

有限元方法(FEM)是一种流行的方法,用于数值解决工程和数学建模中出现的微分方程。典型的问题领域包括结构分析、传热、流体流动、质量运输和电磁势等传统领域。

有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。

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随机分析代写


随机微积分是数学的一个分支,对随机过程进行操作。它允许为随机过程的积分定义一个关于随机过程的一致的积分理论。这个领域是由日本数学家伊藤清在第二次世界大战期间创建并开始的。

时间序列分析代写

随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。

回归分析代写

多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。

MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

R语言代写问卷设计与分析代写
PYTHON代写回归分析与线性模型代写
MATLAB代写方差分析与试验设计代写
STATA代写机器学习/统计学习代写
SPSS代写计量经济学代写
EVIEWS代写时间序列分析代写
EXCEL代写深度学习代写
SQL代写各种数据建模与可视化代写

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