### 统计代写|决策与风险作业代写decision and risk代考|Indicators and Organizational Models

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写决策与风险decision and risk方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写决策与风险decision and risk方面经验极为丰富，各种代写决策与风险decision and risk相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|决策与风险作业代写decision and risk代考|Larisa Ivascu and Alin Emanuel Artene

Risk is present in any activity, process, or organization. From this perspective, special attention must be paid to risks. Organizational risks are risks that positively or negatively affect organizational activity. The risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or have a negative effect on health if that risk occurs. The risk can lead to various organizational or personal losses (The Institute of Risk Management, 2002; Tang 2006; (IRM), 2010; Rass et al. 2020). The risk arises because of the existence of a source of danger or a hazard. These sources of danger contribute to the occurrence of risks. Risks can come from a variety of sources, including uncertainty in financial, legal, legislative data, errors in strategic planning, or other organizational decisions. The occurrence of risks develops a series of consequences that can

affect the organizational activity. To reduce the negative impact of organizational risks and increase the risk of opportunity, risk management has an important role in the organizational environment. Risk management is the process by which risks are identified, assessed, treated and controlled in order to reduce the negative impact (Van Der Walt 2003; Luko 2013; Eaton 2015).

At the level of organizations, in the current conditions of the economy, the security and safety of information technology, human resources risks, all risks related to organizational data, risk management strategies have become the priorities of digitized organizations (Latham and Braun 2009; Arena et al. 2010; Teece et al. 2016). A strategic plan for risk management includes an early identification of sources of danger and the application of measures to eliminate them. For the consequences, methods are applied to reduce the impact, so that the organizational losses are reduced as much as possible.

At the organizational level, there is also the risk generated by unexpected events that can contribute to high costs for the organization or even the closure of the activity. Effective risk management can anticipate certain risks and harmful situations so that the losses recorded by the organization are as low as possible (Dahl 2011 ; Lalonde and Boiral 2012).

Therefore, the risk manager is very important at the level of any organization, regardless of the field of activity. From this perspective, the present chapter aims to present a definition of risk, to identify the entities involved in the process of organizational risks, highlighting the opportunity risk, the importance of efficient risk management and a series of organizational models existing in present. At the end of the chapter is presented a framework approach for assessing technical and technological risks in the automotive industry. This approach includes several indicators. The methodology used to define the risk indicators used in the proposed framework is described by the following steps: (a) the systemic mapping study through the study of 10 technical reports in the automotive field; (b) definition of indicators; (c) the proposal of the chair for evaluation.

## 统计代写|决策与风险作业代写decision and risk代考|Risk Definition

Defining the notion of risk is a complex task, given the diversity of meanings regarding risk, as well as the rich typology of risk at the enterprise level. Therefore, the following is the definition of this concept from the perspectives of several authors in the literature (Latham and Braun 2009).

The explanatory dictionary of the Romanian language highlights the risk as the probability of suffering a damage. In the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, risk is defined as “hazard, the possibility of a negative consequence, loss or exposure to chance” (McCracken 2003; Oxford English Dictionary 2017).

Before 1995, all official publications in the field of risk management used the negative connotation of risk, the term being associated with danger, trouble, loss, etc. In these definitions, risk was associated with uncertainty, with negative

effects/loss/degradation of the company’s objectives, so the risk was equivalent to danger (Adler and Dumas 1984; Fischhoff et al. 1984; Mayer et al. 1995; Šotić and Rajić 2015).

After 1995, the definitions of risk were neutral, with risk being defined as “uncertainty that may affect one or more of the company’s objectives” or “uncertainty that may positively or negatively affect one or more of the company’s objectives.” These definitions give a positive or negative note to the notion (Dionne 2013 ; Management and Guides 2014; Heckmann et al. 2015).

After 2000 , the literature presents risk as the combination of opportunity and threat notion (Dionne 2013; Management and Guides 2014; Izvercian and Ivascu 2014; Heckmann et al. 2015; Izvercian and Ivascu 2014).

Risk is a probability, a mathematical quantity that can be measured, calculated, and estimated. Risk is not a bad concept, risks are essential in the progress of a system, and failures are key elements of learning. Thus, the negative consequences must be balanced with the potential benefits associated with this opportunity (Izvercian and Ivascu 2014).

## 统计代写|决策与风险作业代写decision and risk代考|Risk Opportunity

Events caused by risks can have negative, positive or both consequences. Risks are associated with events that have a negative impact, and organizational opportunities are identified with positive events generated by the occurrence of a risk. Opportunities represent the possibility that an event that will take place will positively affect the achievement of objectives, in support of value creation or conservation (Vassilev and Dimitrova 2015 ; Słowikowski et al. 2017). Organizational opportunities positively affect the achievement of objectives, the achievement of the mission, and the overcoming of the organizational vision (Luko 2013).

## 统计代写|决策与风险作业代写decision and risk代考|Risk Definition

1995 年之后，风险的定义是中性的，风险被定义为“可能影响公司一项或多项目标的不确定性”或“可能对公司一项或多项目标产生正面或负面影响的不确定性”。这些定义对该概念给出了正面或负面的说明（Dionne 2013；Management and Guides 2014；Heckmann et al. 2015）。

2000 年之后，文献将风险描述为机会和威胁概念的结合（Dionne 2013；Management and Guides 2014；Izvercian 和 Ivascu 2014；Heckmann 等人 2015；Izvercian 和 Ivascu 2014）。

## 广义线性模型代考

statistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。