统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

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  • Statistical Inference 统计推断
  • Statistical Computing 统计计算
  • Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
  • Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
  • (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
  • Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
  • Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
  • Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础
2D and 3D Shapes: Definition, Properties, Formulas, Types of 3D Shapes
统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

Understanding those ‘real-life-objects’ is a first step of data interpretation. A great variety of such ‘real-life-objects’ exists, that act as projecting agents’ ${ }^{10}$ for socioeconomic phenomena. Human beings are the most important of the great variety of ‘real-life-objects’ that are of interest to society – no offense is meant when referring to human beings as ‘real-life-objects’ as a technical-statistical term. It can be an individual person, or a group of persons, like a ‘family’, a ‘household’ or other groups of people, e.g. in a mental institution, in hospitals, jails, or retirement homes.
These ‘real-life-objects’ can also be things related to socio-economic activities, such as mines, farms, retail establishments, production plants, railroad companies (with their rail network), corporations, but also machines, farm animals, and produced goods. Political-administrative districts can become ‘real-life-objects’, such as counties, metropolitan areas, census tracts, even plots of land cultivated with certain field crops. Other, quite different kinds of ‘real-life-objects’ can be legal documents like shares, mortgages, vehicle registrations, birth certificates, building permits and bonds.

The most frequent kind of ‘real-life-objects’, however, are neither people nor buildings or things. They are occurrences of social relevance, such as sales, strikes, accidents. Into this category of ‘real-life-objects’ belong events that are beginnings e.g. the birth of a person, foundation of a firm, issuance of a share, the issue of a construction permit or the creation of a new job, changes e.g. in the occupation of a person or in the line of production of a firm, and terminations e.g. the withdrawal of a person from the labor force or the conclusion of a debt through full payment, the completion of the construction of a dwelling unit or the bankruptcy filed by a business firm. These occurrences can become the ‘real-life-objects’ of interest, independently of the persons, things or events in which they occur. These beginnings, changes and endings are of interest independently of the ‘real-life-object’ in which they occur, though always in relation to it, whereby the description of the ‘real-life-object’ in (or on) which an occurrence takes place becomes one of its characteristics. An example would be the opening of a new supermarket, where the ‘real-life-object,’ the beginning of a firm, is characterized by the size and kind of business in which it occurs.

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Substance and Individuality of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

These ‘real-life-objects’ differ widely regarding their physical substance. On one extreme are those that consist predominantly of a physical mass like lumber, coal,

gasoline, cement, fuels and raw materials. These are needed to project socioeconomic phenomena such as importation, exportation, or as the input of certain raw materials in a production process. The problem with them is that they lack natural units that can be counted and measured.

On the other extreme are ‘real-life-objects’ that have only a symbolic substance: a mortgage, the piece of paper that represents that financial contract and is part of the important phenomenon ‘long-term investment.’ Occurrences usually have only a minimal physical substance: a birth certificate or a marriage license. Some occurrences have no physical substance at all such as a business transaction in which merchandise and money is exchanged informally, without a written record – the substance of the traded merchandise must not be confounded with the substance of the transaction itself, which is the ‘real-life-object’ properly speaking from a statistical point of view. Such lack of a physical substance in ‘real-life-objects’ causes the problem of under-reporting because of the difficulty in locating and recording them.

A different, though related matter, is the individuality of these ‘real-life-objects’. It refers to their appearance as something clearly distinct from their environment and from other ‘real-life-objects’. A ‘real-life-object’ may consist of one single piece or unit, such as a car. At times a ‘real-life-object’ may consist of various individual pieces, each of which could become a ‘real-life-object’ in its own right. A ‘Corporation,’ for example is a ‘real-life-object’ of one kind. Its various retail establishments or production plants can become separate ‘real-life-objects’ in which case they represent a different kind of economic phenomenon.

The delimitation of the individuality of an object often suggests itself naturally, such as in a motor vehicle, farm animals, or fruit trees. ${ }^{11}$ This is not the case in a variety of socio-economic ‘real-life-objects’ whose individuality must be defined by the social scientist, such as e.g. a business firm, an I.O.U., a work-accident or a strike. Raw materials, many semi-finished products, and fuels present problems in this regard. Bulk products like cement, cotton, chemicals, lumber, oil, coal, electricity or gas do not have naturally individualized pieces that one might use as ‘real-life-objects.’

Other materials do have individualized pieces, but the exact determination of their number and characteristics is not worth the trouble, such as metal screws, nails, apples, bricks, pencils or cigarettes to give a few examples. In such instances the weight, length, surface or volume of their physical bulk is substituted, such as tons, bushels, board feet, KWH, or certain forms of packaging, such as barrels (oil), sacks (potatoes), crates, bales, or even the ‘production of the day.’ These are not truly individualized objects but pseudo-objects. The number representing the measure of their weight or volume are scale units of measurement, not, as is sometimes mistakenly believed, individual objects. Such units-of-measurement, as stand-ins, are pseudo ‘real-life-objects’ that are treated as homogeneous, in contrast to individualized ‘real-life-objects’ that can be quite heterogeneous and require a correspondingly more sophisticated statistical approach.

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Life Span and Timing of ‘Real-life-Objects’

Every ‘real-life-object’ has a duration or life-span, no matter how short it may be. That life-span has a beginning, various phases of development, and an end. (e.g. see Fig. 7.1) No object really exists as just a point in time, even if for practical purposes it may be treated as such. Beginnings, changes and terminations themselves usually are complex occurrences. The establishment of a new business firm, for instance, may take months. It is a lengthy process which itself has a beginning, duration, and a termination. The onset of the beginning may be considered in even finer detail and further phases might be distinguished about it, such as a beginning e.g. the moment at which this beginning phase actually is initiated, a development of this early stage, and an ending, which is the point in time when this beginning stage is terminated. The possibility of such refinements has a certain importance for the precision with which real-life-objects can be recorded statistically, and to clarify some old problems in statistics like ‘the index-number-problem’. 12

The issue of when exactly a ‘real-life-object’ is captured statistically can be important. It allows to link-up each object with other ‘real-life-objects’ in a ‘historic landscape’. This matter is important because statistical survey procedures tend to isolate ‘real-life-objects’ from their actual surroundings, thereby tending to ignore potentially important information about their socio-economic context. More about this will be discussed in Chap. 5, Longitudinal Analysis-Part 1 – Looking to the Past.

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’


统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’



统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Substance and Individuality of ‘Real-Life-Objects’



另一个极端是只有象征性物质的“现实生活对象”:抵押,代表金融合同的一张纸,是“长期投资”这一重要现象的一部分。事件通常只有最低限度的物理物质:出生证明或结婚证。有些事情根本没有实物,例如在没有书面记录的情况下,以非正式方式交换商品和货币的商业交易——交易商品的实质不能与交易本身的实质相混淆,这是“真实的”。 -life-object’ 从统计的角度正确地说。“现实生活中的物体”中缺乏物理物质会导致报告不足的问题,因为难以定位和记录它们。




统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Life Span and Timing of ‘Real-life-Objects’

每个“现实生活中的对象”都有一个持续时间或寿命,无论它有多短。这个生命周期有一个开始、发展的各个阶段和一个结束。(例如,参见图 7.1) 没有任何对象真正仅作为一个时间点存在,即使出于实际目的,它可能被视为如此。开始、变化和终止本身通常是复杂的事件。例如,建立一家新的商业公司可能需要几个月的时间。这是一个漫长的过程,它本身有开始、持续和结束。可以更详细地考虑开始的开始,并且可以区分进一步的阶段,例如开始,例如这个开始阶段实际开始的时刻,这个早期阶段的发展,以及结束,这是这个开始阶段结束的时间点。这种细化的可能性对于统计记录现实生活对象的精度以及澄清统计中的一些老问题如“索引数问题”具有一定的重要性。12

何时准确捕获“现实生活中的对象”这一问题可能很重要。它允许将每个对象与“历史景观”中的其他“现实生活对象”联系起来。这件事很重要,因为统计调查程序倾向于将“现实生活中的对象”与其实际环境隔离开来,从而倾向于忽略有关其社会经济背景的潜在重要信息。更多关于这方面的内容将在第 1 章中讨论。5,纵向分析 – 第 1 部分 – 回顾过去。

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术语 广义线性模型(GLM)通常是指给定连续和/或分类预测因素的连续响应变量的常规线性回归模型。它包括多元线性回归,以及方差分析和方差分析(仅含固定效应)。



有限元是一种通用的数值方法,用于解决两个或三个空间变量的偏微分方程(即一些边界值问题)。为了解决一个问题,有限元将一个大系统细分为更小、更简单的部分,称为有限元。这是通过在空间维度上的特定空间离散化来实现的,它是通过构建对象的网格来实现的:用于求解的数值域,它有有限数量的点。边界值问题的有限元方法表述最终导致一个代数方程组。该方法在域上对未知函数进行逼近。[1] 然后将模拟这些有限元的简单方程组合成一个更大的方程系统,以模拟整个问题。然后,有限元通过变化微积分使相关的误差函数最小化来逼近一个解决方案。





随机过程,是依赖于参数的一组随机变量的全体,参数通常是时间。 随机变量是随机现象的数量表现,其时间序列是一组按照时间发生先后顺序进行排列的数据点序列。通常一组时间序列的时间间隔为一恒定值(如1秒,5分钟,12小时,7天,1年),因此时间序列可以作为离散时间数据进行分析处理。研究时间序列数据的意义在于现实中,往往需要研究某个事物其随时间发展变化的规律。这就需要通过研究该事物过去发展的历史记录,以得到其自身发展的规律。


多元回归分析渐进(Multiple Regression Analysis Asymptotics)属于计量经济学领域,主要是一种数学上的统计分析方法,可以分析复杂情况下各影响因素的数学关系,在自然科学、社会和经济学等多个领域内应用广泛。


MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中,其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括:数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发,包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统,其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题,尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题,而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问,这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展,得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中,它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域,MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要,工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数(M 文件)的综合集合,可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。



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