### 统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Different Types of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

Understanding those ‘real-life-objects’ is a first step of data interpretation. A great variety of such ‘real-life-objects’ exists, that act as projecting agents’ ${ }^{10}$ for socioeconomic phenomena. Human beings are the most important of the great variety of ‘real-life-objects’ that are of interest to society – no offense is meant when referring to human beings as ‘real-life-objects’ as a technical-statistical term. It can be an individual person, or a group of persons, like a ‘family’, a ‘household’ or other groups of people, e.g. in a mental institution, in hospitals, jails, or retirement homes.
These ‘real-life-objects’ can also be things related to socio-economic activities, such as mines, farms, retail establishments, production plants, railroad companies (with their rail network), corporations, but also machines, farm animals, and produced goods. Political-administrative districts can become ‘real-life-objects’, such as counties, metropolitan areas, census tracts, even plots of land cultivated with certain field crops. Other, quite different kinds of ‘real-life-objects’ can be legal documents like shares, mortgages, vehicle registrations, birth certificates, building permits and bonds.

The most frequent kind of ‘real-life-objects’, however, are neither people nor buildings or things. They are occurrences of social relevance, such as sales, strikes, accidents. Into this category of ‘real-life-objects’ belong events that are beginnings e.g. the birth of a person, foundation of a firm, issuance of a share, the issue of a construction permit or the creation of a new job, changes e.g. in the occupation of a person or in the line of production of a firm, and terminations e.g. the withdrawal of a person from the labor force or the conclusion of a debt through full payment, the completion of the construction of a dwelling unit or the bankruptcy filed by a business firm. These occurrences can become the ‘real-life-objects’ of interest, independently of the persons, things or events in which they occur. These beginnings, changes and endings are of interest independently of the ‘real-life-object’ in which they occur, though always in relation to it, whereby the description of the ‘real-life-object’ in (or on) which an occurrence takes place becomes one of its characteristics. An example would be the opening of a new supermarket, where the ‘real-life-object,’ the beginning of a firm, is characterized by the size and kind of business in which it occurs.

## 统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Substance and Individuality of ‘Real-Life-Objects’

These ‘real-life-objects’ differ widely regarding their physical substance. On one extreme are those that consist predominantly of a physical mass like lumber, coal,

gasoline, cement, fuels and raw materials. These are needed to project socioeconomic phenomena such as importation, exportation, or as the input of certain raw materials in a production process. The problem with them is that they lack natural units that can be counted and measured.

On the other extreme are ‘real-life-objects’ that have only a symbolic substance: a mortgage, the piece of paper that represents that financial contract and is part of the important phenomenon ‘long-term investment.’ Occurrences usually have only a minimal physical substance: a birth certificate or a marriage license. Some occurrences have no physical substance at all such as a business transaction in which merchandise and money is exchanged informally, without a written record – the substance of the traded merchandise must not be confounded with the substance of the transaction itself, which is the ‘real-life-object’ properly speaking from a statistical point of view. Such lack of a physical substance in ‘real-life-objects’ causes the problem of under-reporting because of the difficulty in locating and recording them.

A different, though related matter, is the individuality of these ‘real-life-objects’. It refers to their appearance as something clearly distinct from their environment and from other ‘real-life-objects’. A ‘real-life-object’ may consist of one single piece or unit, such as a car. At times a ‘real-life-object’ may consist of various individual pieces, each of which could become a ‘real-life-object’ in its own right. A ‘Corporation,’ for example is a ‘real-life-object’ of one kind. Its various retail establishments or production plants can become separate ‘real-life-objects’ in which case they represent a different kind of economic phenomenon.

The delimitation of the individuality of an object often suggests itself naturally, such as in a motor vehicle, farm animals, or fruit trees. ${ }^{11}$ This is not the case in a variety of socio-economic ‘real-life-objects’ whose individuality must be defined by the social scientist, such as e.g. a business firm, an I.O.U., a work-accident or a strike. Raw materials, many semi-finished products, and fuels present problems in this regard. Bulk products like cement, cotton, chemicals, lumber, oil, coal, electricity or gas do not have naturally individualized pieces that one might use as ‘real-life-objects.’

Other materials do have individualized pieces, but the exact determination of their number and characteristics is not worth the trouble, such as metal screws, nails, apples, bricks, pencils or cigarettes to give a few examples. In such instances the weight, length, surface or volume of their physical bulk is substituted, such as tons, bushels, board feet, KWH, or certain forms of packaging, such as barrels (oil), sacks (potatoes), crates, bales, or even the ‘production of the day.’ These are not truly individualized objects but pseudo-objects. The number representing the measure of their weight or volume are scale units of measurement, not, as is sometimes mistakenly believed, individual objects. Such units-of-measurement, as stand-ins, are pseudo ‘real-life-objects’ that are treated as homogeneous, in contrast to individualized ‘real-life-objects’ that can be quite heterogeneous and require a correspondingly more sophisticated statistical approach.

## 统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Life Span and Timing of ‘Real-life-Objects’

Every ‘real-life-object’ has a duration or life-span, no matter how short it may be. That life-span has a beginning, various phases of development, and an end. (e.g. see Fig. 7.1) No object really exists as just a point in time, even if for practical purposes it may be treated as such. Beginnings, changes and terminations themselves usually are complex occurrences. The establishment of a new business firm, for instance, may take months. It is a lengthy process which itself has a beginning, duration, and a termination. The onset of the beginning may be considered in even finer detail and further phases might be distinguished about it, such as a beginning e.g. the moment at which this beginning phase actually is initiated, a development of this early stage, and an ending, which is the point in time when this beginning stage is terminated. The possibility of such refinements has a certain importance for the precision with which real-life-objects can be recorded statistically, and to clarify some old problems in statistics like ‘the index-number-problem’. 12

The issue of when exactly a ‘real-life-object’ is captured statistically can be important. It allows to link-up each object with other ‘real-life-objects’ in a ‘historic landscape’. This matter is important because statistical survey procedures tend to isolate ‘real-life-objects’ from their actual surroundings, thereby tending to ignore potentially important information about their socio-economic context. More about this will be discussed in Chap. 5, Longitudinal Analysis-Part 1 – Looking to the Past.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。