统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|From the Facts in Society to Socio-Economic Data

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写描述统计学Descriptive statistics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写描述统计学Descriptive statistics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写描述统计学Descriptive statistics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|Socio-Economic Phenomena

The intent of this chapter is to clarify the nature of socio-economic statistical data, and the role statistics is playing in capturing socio-economic phenomena. This role has been seldom discussed but is a fundamental issue concerning the nature of socioeconomic statistical data, ${ }^{1}$ and the manner in which they convey socio-economic reality. The following discourse may strike some readers as unnecessary, perhaps as not even belonging to statistics. Yet, a good understanding of this preliminary phase should provide the user of statistical data with an understanding of the data-creation process as an important first step of interpretation.

To properly interpret data, an understanding of the nature of the elementary building blocks, $^{2}$ the ‘statistical-counting-units’ and their role in portraying economic phenomena, is needed. A comparison suggests itself with the role that atoms and molecules are believed to play in the physical world. The ‘statistical-counting-units’ could be thought of as equivalents of the atoms in physics. The summation of these statistical-counting-units in statistical aggregates could be compared to molecules that are made up of such atoms. These molecules then make up the substance of objects, which then are somehow comparable to phenomena in the social sciences. Despite the appearance of simplicity and mathematical precision of statistical data presenting socio-economic phenomena, like ‘price level,’ ‘unemployment,’ or the GDP, these phenomena and the data portraying them, are more ambivalent and elusive than is commonly realized.

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|The Socio-Economic Phenomena

Let me start with the beginning of any statistical investigation: defining the phenomenon to be studied, what it is, where and when it can be found, and how

it should be captured statistically. To repeat the obvious, the phenomena in society are quite different from phenomena in the natural sciences. They also differ in the manner in which ‘real-life-objects’ project the socio-economic phenomena. ${ }^{3}$ The temperature at which water reaches the boiling point, for example, should be expected to be the same in socialist China as in capitalist USA, in a stone age community in Australia’s outback as in a futuristic community in California. Aside from the influence of the barometric pressure – depending on the altitude above sea level – the boiling point of water was probably the same during the time of the French Revolution as during the Punic Wars of ancient Rome. Minor changes may have occurred in reaction to changes in our solar system and in the galaxy to which it belongs. It seems unlikely that a research grant would be available for studying differences in the boiling points of water between cultures, in different continents, or in different historical epochs. Compare this with research in the social sciences where the opposite assumption applies: nothing should be expected to remain the same from one social stratum to another, from one country or culture to another, or even from one month to the next. Social phenomena are known for their rapid change, their unpredictable evolution and their great variety. Statistical data must keep up with this dynamism, and statistical theory ought to be prepared to interpret the phenomena that underlie those data. It should not be a surprise that statisticians have been uncomfortable approaching this topic. They seem to consider a discussion of economic and social phenomena as lying outside the purview of statistics. $.^{4}$ Yet, a foothold in this foreign area must be obtained.

It appears that socio-economic phenomena can be abstracted from actual situations of society on at least three levels.

统计代写|描述统计学代写Descriptive statistics代考|The ‘Projecting Agents’ of Socio-Economic Phenomena

In sociology, economics, management, and other business areas, specific socioeconomic phenomena are portrayed or projected by specific items, events, buildings and all kinds of things such as e.g. cars and in general, ‘durable consumer-goods.’ These ‘projecting agents’ can also be contractual documents that seem to exist only as a piece of paper but are anchored in the laws and customs of society. All of these will be referred to in the following as ‘real-life-objects.’

Socio-economic phenomena, at all levels of abstraction, are projected by appropriate ‘real-life-objects’ as the ‘projecting agents’, somewhat like the invisible field of a magnet is projected by iron filings scattered on a sheet of paper placed on top of that magnet. The iron particles become projecting agents of the phenomenon ‘magnetism’ by their reaction to these polarizing forces that exert an effect on these particles. Quetelet’s example of a circle drawn with chalk on a blackboard comes to mind although he intended to illustrate with it the ‘Law of Large Numbers.’ When looking through a magnifying glass, he relates, the individual chalk particles can be seen, spread randomly over the rough surface of the blackboard. When looking at all those particles together, however, the shape of their array in a circle, which in this instance is the phenomenon, becomes evident. ${ }^{8}$

After the appropriate branches of the social sciences have defined a social or economic phenomenon to be investigated, it is the task of statistics to identify, locate and record those ‘real-life-objects’ that portray that phenomenon.

有限元方法代写

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。