### 统计代写|数据可视化代写data visualization代考|Data visualizations and ideology

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写data visualization代考|Data visualizations and ideology

The perspective of Data visualizations and ideology captures the ways in which data visualizations privilege certain views of the world, and through dissemination and audience engagement thus work as manifestations or carriers of ideology. From this perspective, data visualizations are integral to the production of meanings, signs, and values in social life, and, according to Marxian thought, a vehicle for the legitimation of the ideas of a particular group or class. Through their dissemination, data visualizations thus may work in the service of particular ideologies – be it for change or for preserving the status quo. Several chapters in this book highlight how data visualizations are not innocent or neutral representations of facts, but are indeed promoting a certain view of the world or establishing a certain kind of epistemology. Hill (this volume) for instance, shows how data visualizations of abortion work to naturalize limitations on access to reproductive healthcare.

From an ideological perspective, data visualizations primarily have pre-political significance, rather than direct bearings upon politics (understood in a narrow sense). Data visualizations can contribute to naturalize or challenge certain broad worldviews. Consider for instance how data visualizations can frame socio-economic disparities as dramatic and critical, or conversely, as natural and inevitable. Such worldviews promoted through data visualizations may in turn be highly significant in legitimating or challenging the priorities of political bodies or actors, or in informing voting preferences.

This perspective contrasts to that of deliberation. A deliberative perspective presupposes that data visualizations form part of the exchange of arguments open to validation or critique. In contrast, data visualizations seen from an ideological perspective, work to conceal or naturalise propositions that are nonetheless laden with a particular view of the world.

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写data visualization代考|Data visualizations and citizenship

Data visualizations and citizenship is a perspective emphasizing the different ways in which data visualization can enable people to function as citizens. It does not capture direct impacts of data visualizations on political processes or decision-making. Rather, the political significance here resides in how data visualization may foster engagement with these processes and political participation more broadly.

This perspective lends itself to participatory models of democracy, most notably what is known as the republican and deliberative models of democracy (Held, 2006). These posit that democratic citizenship is not confined to the act of voting, and that broad citizen participation and engagement constitute the core of democratic politics. It is important to note, though, that in the same way that data visualization works as a resource for informed and critical citizenship, it may also work as a tool for misinformation and manipulation, and consequently contribute to the erosion of informed and critical citizenship.
An obvious capacity through which data visualization may enable citizens is by providing them with information and with tools for making sense of complicated political issues. It may enable citizens to take part in political will and opinion formation as well as to form informed party preferences. Moreover, data visualizations may also provide valuable input to the everyday and informal discussions among ‘ordinary people’, sitting at the core of deliberative models of democracy.

Coleman and Moss’s (2016) study of televised election debates and their audiences offers one example of how data visualization may work to promote informed and critical citizenship. In the context of television debates, they identify data visualization as a key sense-making technology through which viewers can be addressed in an inclusive manner by politicians, as well as a tool for citizens to understand and evaluate claims made by politicians and parties.
Moreover, given open data sources and rising levels of technical literacy, the production and dissemination of data visualizations by citizens or activists constitutes a bottom-up form of civic engagement in itself. Such a bottom-up perspective is highlighted by D’Ignazio \& Bhargava (this volume). These contributors argue that the diffusion of visual-numerical literacy is critical for enabling non-elite members of society to produce their own counterhegemonic data visualizations. Similarly, Pinney (this volume) highlights the importance of data literacy for participation in today’s datafied society.
So far in my treatment of data visualizations’ relevance for citizenship, I have highlighted what could roughly be labelled as ‘cognitive’ dimensions. However, people’s engagement with political causes or issues, and inclination to participate more generally, is a question about more than rational judgements and uptake of factual information. It is also a matter of feelings and belongings. Civic engagement hinges on sympathies, antipathies, identifications, passions, and so on. In order to be motivated to act as a citizen, one needs to feel as part of the community that makes up the polity (Kymlicka, 2015; Dahlgren, 2002). Or conversely, feelings of being excluded from community may also motivate political engagement, or political struggle for inclusion more generally. These affective and affinitive aspects of citizenship imply a significant role for data visualizations.

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写data visualization代考|Data visualizations as political-administrative steering tool

The perspective of Data visualizations as political-administrative steering tool captures scenarios where data visualization is used instrumentally to guide policy or decision-making. It is thus a perspective in which data visualization is assumed to have a strong and direct link to politics. In contrast to the other perspectives, the significance of data visualizations here does not necessarily depend on their circulation in the public sphere or their uptake by non-expert citizens. Rather, the perspective assumes a trajectory directly from experts to policymakers or between other elite actors, who are often connected to scientific, economic, and political institutions. I will illustrate this perspective using an example from the field of global climate policy. ${ }^{1}$

Here, I zoom in on how visualizations of climate data inform how The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets its climate policy goals. A main focus of this political body is to set the temperature target; the maximum allowable warming to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate. The UNFCCC regularly commissions scientific reports on which to base policymaking. These reports are commissioned from The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a scientific body consisting of thousands of scientist and other experts. As part of these lengthy reports the IPPC produces a short version of the report, called Summary for Policymakers, which addresses policymakers directly. Among other things, this summary presents research-based scenarios guiding policymakers, who also finally approve the summary. These summaries routinely contain data visualizations.

For instance, a regular staple in these summaries has been the visualization feature called the ‘burning ember’ (see New York Times, 20og). In the form of coloured bar graphs, the ‘burning ember’ visualizes risks (the redder, the more critical) associated with different scenarios of increased global mean temperatures. As such, the ‘burning ember’ provides an example of how data visualizations address ‘strong’ publics, whose discourse encompasses both opinion formation and decision-making. It is thus also an example of how data visualizations may attain very concrete and manifest political significance as aids for political decisions. However, the inclusion of the ‘burning ember’ has been criticized precisely for being too instructive. Rather than merely visualizing problems-which is the mandate of the scientists – it is criticized for employing visual rhetoric that command certain responses (see, for instance, Mahoney \& Hulme, 2012).

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写data visualization代考|Data visualizations and citizenship

Coleman 和 Moss（2016 年）对电视选举辩论及其观众的研究提供了一个例子，说明数据可视化如何促进知情和批判性的公民意识。在电视辩论的背景下，他们将数据可视化视为一种关键的意义构建技术，政治家可以通过该技术以包容的方式向观众提问，同时也是公民理解和评估政治家和政党提出的主张的工具。

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