### 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|DESN6003

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写数据可视化Data visualization方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写数据可视化Data visualization代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写数据可视化Data visualization相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|The Rise of the Graphic Method and Visual Thinking

Playfair’s graphical inventions-the line chart, bar chart, and pie chart-are the most commonly used graphical forms today. The bar chart was something of an anomaly: lacking the time series data required to draw a timeline showing the trade with Scotland, he used bars to symbolize the cross-sectional character of the data that he did have. Playfair acknowledged Priestley’s (1765, 1769) priority in this form, using thin horizontal bars to symbolize the life spans of historical figures in a time line (Figure 1.6). What attracted Playfair’s interest was the possibility of visualizing a history over a long period and showing a classification (statesmen versus men of learning)-all in a single view.

Playfair’s role was crucial for several reasons. It was not for his development of the graphic recording of data; others preceded him in that. Indeed, in 1805 he pointed out that as a child his brother John had him keep a graphic record of temperature readings. But Playfair was in a remarkable position. Because of his close relationship with his brother and his connections with Watt, he was on the periphery of science. He was close enough to know of the value of the graphical method but sufficiently detached in his own interests to apply them in a very different arena-that of economics and finance. These areas, then as now, tend to attract a larger audience than matters of science, and Playfair was adept at self-promotion. ${ }^{15}$

In a review of his 1786 Atlas, which appeared in The Political Herald, the Scottish historian Dr. Gilbert Stuart wrote,
The new method, in which accounts are stated in this work, has attracted very general notice. The propriety and expediency of all men, who have any interest in the nation, being acquainted with the general outlines, and the great facts relating to our commerce are unquestionable; and this is the most commodious, as well as accurate mode of effecting this object, that has hitherto been thought of…. To each of his charts the author has added observations (which) … in general are just and shrewd; and sometimes profound…. Very considerable applause is certainly due to his invention; as a new, distinct, and easy mode of conveying information to statesmen and merchants.

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|A Golden Age

Something even more remarkable occurred in the latter part of the nineteenth century, as many forces combined to produce the perfect storm for data graphics, in what we call the Golden Age of Graphics (Chapter 7). By the mid-1800s, vast quantities of data on important social issues (commerce, disease, literacy, crime) had become available in Europe and the United States, so much that one historian called this an “avalanche of numbers.” 16 In the second half of this century some statistical theory was developed to allow their essence to be summarized and sensible comparisons to be made. Technological advances in printing and reproduction now allowed for the broad dissemination of graphic works in color and with a graphic style that

was unavailable previously. Excitement and enthusiasm for graphics were in the air. ${ }^{17}$ The audience was international, but they shared a common visual language and visual thinking.

Another of the key developers of graphic vision was Charles Joseph Minard $[1781-1870]$, a civil engineer in France, who produced what is now applauded as the greatest data-based graphic of all time-a flow map depicting Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812 (see Figure 10.3). Minard used the graphic method to design beautiful thematic maps and diagrams showing all manner of topics of interest to the modern French state during the dawn of national concern for trade, commerce, and transportation: Where to build railroads? How did the US Civil War affect the British mills’ importation of cotton? In these and other graphs, he told graphic stories of immediate visual impact-the message hit the viewer between the eyes. Minard too was driven by an inner vision.

By the end of the nineteenth century, scientists from the United States (Francis Walker in the Census Bureau), France (Émile Cheysson in the Mini stry of Public Works), and others in Germany (Herman Schwabe, August F. W. Crome), Sweden, and elsewhere, began to produce and widely disseminate elaborate and detailed statistical albums tracing and celebrating their nations’ achievements and aspirations. These contain some of the most exquisite graphs ever produced, even to this day. They were resplendent in color and style and revealed a vision of inventive graphic design that serves as a model to emulate and has become part of the language of graphics today. They inspire awe, just as do the cave paintings in Lascaux.

In this chapter we have taken a long-range view of visualizations spanning more than 17,000 years from the Lascaux cave paintings of long extinct auroch bulls to Minard’s equally exquisite depictions of the horrors of the Napoleonic Wars. In both these cases, and in many in between, visualizations have painlessly provided memorable understanding for those who look at them. Over the course of centuries, rising visual thinking was expressed in diagrams, maps, and graphs. A universal language of visualizations was used to communicate both quantitative and qualitative information, to uncover complex phenomena, to support, or refute, scientific claims. In the balance of this book we will elaborate and illustrate the wonders of visual communication and welcome you along on the journey.

## 统计代写|数据可视化代写Data visualization代考|The Rise of the Graphic Method and Visual Thinking

Playfair 的图形发明——折线图、条形图和饼图——是当今最常用的图形形式。条形图有点反常：缺乏绘制显示与苏格兰贸易时间线所需的时间序列数据，他使用条形来象征他确实拥有的数据的横截面特征。Playfair 以这种形式承认了 Priestley (1765, 1769) 的优先权，使用细横条在时间线上象征历史人物的寿命（图 1.6）。引起 Playfair 兴趣的是，可以将一段长时间的历史可视化并显示分类（政治家与有学问的人）——所有这些都在一个单一的视图中。

Playfair 的角色至关重要，原因有几个。这不是因为他开发了数据的图形记录；其他人在这方面先于他。事实上，他在 1805 年指出，他的兄弟约翰小时候曾让他保存温度读数的图形记录。但普莱费尔处于一个了不起的位置。由于他与兄弟的密切关系以及与瓦特的关系，他处于科学的边缘。他足够接近了解图解法的价值，但又足够独立于自己的利益，以将它们应用到一个非常不同的领域——经济和金融领域。与现在一样，这些领域往往比科学问题更能吸引更多的观众，而 Playfair 擅长自我推销。15

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。