统计代写|数据结构作业代写data structure代考|Stacks

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

统计代写|数据结构作业代写data structure代考|What is a Stack

A stack is a simple data structure used for storing data (simailar to Lanked Lists). In a stack, the order in which the data arrives is important. A pile of plates in a cafeteria is a good example of a stack. The plates are added to the stack as they are cleaned and they are placed on the top. When a plate, is required it is taken from the top of the stack. The first plate placed on the stack is the last one to be used.

Definition: A stack is an ordered list in which insertion and deletion are done at one end, called top. The last clement inserted is the first one to be delcted. Hence, it is called the Last in First out (I.IFO) or Furst in Last out (FILO) list.

Special names are given to the two changes that can be made to a stack. When an clenuent is inserted in a stack, the concept is called push, and when an element is removed from the stack, the concept is called pop. Tryang to pop out an cmpty stack is called under flow and trying to push an elenueat in a full stack is called overflow. Geacrally, we treat then as exceptions. As an example, consider the snapshots of the stack.

统计代写|数据结构作业代写data structure代考|How Stacks are Used

Consider a working day in the office. Let us assume a developer is working on a long-term project. The manager then gives the developer a uew task which is maore important. The developer pusts the long term project aside and begins work on the asew tasla. The phone rings, and this is the highest pronory as it must be answered immediately. The developer pushes the present task into the peadiag tray and answers the phone.

When the call is complete the task that was abandoned to answer the phone is retrieved from the pendirg tray and work progresses. To take another call, it nay have to be handled in the sanve manner, but eventually the new task will be funished, and the developer can draw the loangtern project from the pending tray and continue with thaat.

统计代写|数据结构作业代写data structure代考|Dynamic Array Implementation

First, ket’s consider how we inplemented a simple array-based stack. We took one index variable top which points to the iadex of the most. recenthy inserted clement in the stack. To insert (or push) an element, we increment top index and then place the new element at that index.
Simalarly, to delete (or pop) an element we take the element at top index and then decrenent the top index. We represent an empty quete with top value equal to $-1$. The issue that still needs to be resolved is what we do when all the slots in the fixed size array stack are oceupicdi? First tryy What if we increment the size of the aray by 1 every time the stack is fulle?

• Pusha 0 ibcrease size of $\mathrm{S} |$ by 1
• Pop0: decrease size of Sll by 1
Issues with this approach?
This way of incrementing the array size is too expensive. Let us see the reason for this. For example, at $n=1$, to push an element create a new array of size 2 and copy all the old array elements to the new array, and at the end add the new element. At $n=2$, to push an element create a new array of size 3 and copy all the old array elements to the new array, and at the end add the new elenent.

Similarly, at $n=n-1$, if we want to push an element create a new array of size $n$ and copy all the old array elements to the new array and at the end add the new element. After $n$ push operations the total tine $T(n)$ (number of copy operations) is proportional to $1+2+\ldots+$ $n \approx \mathrm{O}\left(n^{2}\right)$.
Alternative Approach: Repeated Doubling
Let us improve the conplexity by using the array doubling technique. If the array is full, create a new array of twice the size, and copy the itens. With this approash, pushing $n$ items take time proporional to $n$ (not $n^{2}$ ).
For simplieity, let us aosune that initinlly we started waith $n=1$ and moved up to $n=32$. That means, we do the doubling at $1,2,4,8,16$. The other way of analyzing the same approach is: at $n=1$, if we want to add (push) an element, double the current size of the array and copy all the elements of the old array to the new array.

统计代写|数据结构作业代写data structure代考|Dynamic Array Implementation

• Pusha 0 ibcrease 大小小号|1
• Pop0：将 Sll 的大小减小 1
这种方法有问题吗？
这种增加数组大小的方法太昂贵了。让我们看看这其中的原因。例如，在n=1，要推送一个元素，创建一个大小为 2 的新数组，并将所有旧数组元素复制到新数组，最后添加新元素。在n=2，要推送一个元素，创建一个大小为 3 的新数组并将所有旧数组元素复制到新数组，最后添加新元素。

广义线性模型代考

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MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。