### 统计代写|生物统计代写biostatistics代考|CLINICAL TRIALS

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写生物统计biostatistics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写生物统计biostatistics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种生物统计biostatistics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|生物统计代写biostatistics代考|Observational Studies Versus Experiments

When two or more subpopulations or treatments are to be compared in a biomedical research study, one of the most important aspects of the research protocol is whether the researchers can assign the units to the subpopulations or treatment groups that are being compared. When the researchers control the assignment of the units to the different treatments that are being compared, the study is called an experiment, and when units come to the researchers already assigned to the subpopulations or treatment groups, the study is called an observational study. Thus, in an experiment the researcher has the ability to assign the units to the groups that are being compared, while in an observational study the units come to the researcher already assigned to the groups.

One of the main reasons an observational study is used instead of an experiment in a biomedical research study is that it would be unethical to assign some subjects to a treatment that is known to be harmful and the remaining subjects to a treatment that is not harmful. For example, in a prospective 30 -year study of the effects of smoking cigarettes, it would be unethical to assign some subjects to be smokers and others to be non-smokers.
For ethical reasons, observational studies are often used in epidemiological studies designed to investigate the risk factors associated with a disease. Also, a retrospective study is always an observational study because it looks backward in time and the units have already been assigned to the groups being compared. On the other hand, a prospective study and a clinical trial can be run as either experiments or observational studies depending on whether it is possible for the researcher to assign the units to the groups.

## 统计代写|生物统计代写biostatistics代考|Safety and Ethical Considerations in a Clinical Trial

Every well-designed clinical trial will have a predetermined research protocol that outlines exactly how the clinical trial will be conducted. The clinical trial protocol will describe what will be done in the trial, the rules for determining who can participate, the specific research questions being investigated, the schedule of tests, procedures, medications, and dosages used in the trial, and the length of the trial. During the clinical trial, the participants are closely monitored by the research staff to determine the safety and effectiveness of their treatment. In fact, the ethical treatment and safety of the participants are carefully controlled in clinical trials performed in the United States.

In general, a clinical trial run in the United States must be preapproved by an independent committee of physicians, biostatisticians, and members of the community, which makes sure that the risks to the participants in the study are small and are worth the potential benefits of the new drug or treatment. Many, if not most, externally funded or universitybased clinical trials must be reviewed and approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) associated with the funding agency. The IRB has the power to decide how often to review the clinical trial, and once started whether the clinical trial should continue as initially planned or modifications need to be made to the research protocol. Furthermore, the IRB may end a clinical trial when a researcher is not following the prescribed protocol, the trial is unsafe, or there is clear and strong evidence that the new drug or treatment is effective.

## 统计代写|生物统计代写biostatistics代考|Types of Clinical Trials

Clinical trials can generally be classified as one of the following types of trials:

• Treatment trials that are clinical trials designed to test experimental treatments, new drugs, or new medical approaches or technology.
• Prevention trials that are clinical trials designed to investigate ways to prevent diseases or prevent the recurrence of a disease.
• Screening trials that are clinical trials designed to determine the best way to detect certain diseases or health conditions early on.
• Diagnostic trials that are clinical trials designed to determine tests or procedures that can be used for diagnosing a particular disease or condition.
• Quality-of-life trials that are clinical trials designed to explore ways to improve the comfort and quality of life for individuals with a chronic or terminal disease or condition.
• Genetic trials that are clinical trials designed to investigate the role genetics plays in the detection, diagnosis, or response to a drug or treatment.

Pharmaceutical companies commonly use treatment trials in the development and evaluation of new drugs, epidemiologists generally use prevention, screening, and diagnostic trials in their studies of diseases, public health officials often use quality-of-life trials, and geneticists often use genetic trials for studying tissue or blood samples from families or large groups of people to understand the role of genes in the development of a disease.
The results of a clinical trial are generally published in peer-reviewed scientific or medical journals. The peer-review process is carried out by experts who critically review a research report before it is published. In particular, the peer reviewers are charged with examining the research protocol, analysis, and conclusions drawn in a research report to ensure the integrity and quality of the research that is published. Following the publication of the results of a clinical trial or biomedical research study, further information is generally obtained as new studies are carried out independently by other researchers. The follow-up research is generally designed to validate or expand the previously published results.

## 统计代写|生物统计代写biostatistics代考|Types of Clinical Trials

• 治疗试验是旨在测试实验性治疗、新药或新医学方法或技术的临床试验。
• 预防试验是旨在研究预防疾病或预防疾病复发的方法的临床试验。
• 筛选试验是旨在确定早期检测某些疾病或健康状况的最佳方法的临床试验。
• 诊断试验是旨在确定可用于诊断特定疾病或状况的测试或程序的临床试验。
• 生活质量试验是一种临床试验，旨在探索改善患有慢性或晚期疾病或病症的个体的舒适度和生活质量的方法。
• 基因试验是旨在研究遗传学在检测、诊断或对药物或治疗的反应中所起的作用的临床试验。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。