### 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|An Overview of Security Issues of Internet of Things

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|Smart IoT Devices

An IoT device, also referred to as a smart device, can be anything such as home appliances, medical healthcare devices, vehicles, homes, workshops, factories, and cities. Anything can be attached with a microprocessor and sensors, providing data about the real world and transferring those data through the internet. There are many types of sensors (e.g., temperature, humidity, pressure, distance, light, and motion) which are embedded in the device. An IoT device can be configured to interact with other IoT devices and computers. These devices communicate through various means (e.g., broadband, cellular data, and Wi-Fi) $[5,6]$. Power supply to these IoT devices plays an important role in mobility or rigidity. For example, a small device which is capable of working without a constant wired power supply can be very handy. Such devices are generally preferred by consumers because they are more convenient. Other types of bigger things in IoT include healthcare devices (e.g., CT scanner, monitor), buildings, and cities, which are rigid and generally have a constant wired power supply. Also, there are things which constantly move and also have a wired power supply such as cars, bikes, and airplanes [5,7]. IoT devices can also be classified whether it is a logical/physical or an IP-enabled/non-IP object. Some of the characteristics of an IoT device are the ability to sense, actuate, and control the energy/power and its connection with the physical world, mobility, and connectivity. Some devices are required to be fast and robust [40-42]. Some are required to be precise, while some are required to be long-lasting. Some devices are provided with external security factors (cases, covers, and triggers), while others are totally exposed. Some examples of IoT devices are as follows:

• Wearable Devices
Fitness bands like Google Home [18] and smartwatches like Apple watch [19] and Samsung Galaxy Gear [20].
• Amazon Echo
It is a hands-free speaker which is connected to a cloud-based voice service [21].
• Philips Hue
It is a smart home lighting system which can be controlled remotely and can sense time and day to adjust lights accordingly [22] (Table 3.1).

## 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|Major Security Issues of IoT Devices

Security in IoT devices includes protecting information and data, hardware components, and services of the device from unauthorized access. Both the data and information stored in the device and those in transit should be protected $[16,18]$. The major problems with IoT devices are identified as follows:

• Data Integrity
The integrity of data is defined as the assurance of maintaining data accuracy and consistency throughout the storage lifecycle [23].
• System Security
This issue mainly focuses on the overall security of IoT systems to detect various security issues to design various security frameworks and offer appropriate security guidelines to maintain the security of a network.
• Authorization
The process of granting privilege and specifying access rights is known as authorization [24,25].
• Application Security
This security works for the application to manage security challenges or issues as per situation constraints. In general, security evaluation at the application level prevents data hijacking within the app such as hardware or software that minimizes security vulnerabilities.
• Data Confidentiality
The practice of keeping private data secret is known as data confidentiality [23-25].
• System Vulnerabilities
A lot of work is done by researchers in software vulnerability. Various IoT devices have low-quality software susceptibility to different types of vulnerabilities which are common in the early 2000 and late 1990 s. These devices are vulnerable to weak usage of cryptography, authentication, deployment issue, system software (s/s) exploits, and so on.
• Network Security
This security handles communication attacks on the data which can be transmitted between servers and IoT devices.
• Lack of Common Standard
There are various standards for IoT device-manufacturing companies. Therefore, it becomes a major challenging issue to differentiate between authorized and non-authorized devices connected to the internet.

This defines some fundamental problems in IoT devices. The user accessing the device and its services should be properly authorized in order to view, modify, or add any kind of data to the device storage. An IoT device should be able to authorize the person to access the device. Hence, access and authorization control become necessary factors for establishing a secure connection between multiple devices and their services. Privacy protection is an imperative issue in IoT gadgets and administration because of the universal character of the IoT condition [10,17,19]. Elements are associated, and information is conveyed and transmitted over the web, making client protection a delicate subject in many research works. Protection in information accumulation, just as information sharing and its management, and information security matters stay important issues to be updated.

## 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|Classification of Intruders

Intruders can be individuals, a group of people, or an agency, and the people may belong to an internal or external area. An internal intruder has proper authorization and access but has malicious intents. An external intruder is a person who does not have authorization but has malicious intents of harming the system. These intruders can belong to any one of these following categories $[29,34]$ :

• Individuals
Hackers, professionals, or even people not having any prior knowledge of hacking can use available tools and techniques for their malicious intent. It is very common in youngsters who try to use these tools to either achieve fame for themselves or do it just for fun or revenge [34].
• Organized Group of Persons
Groups of people with criminal intents are becoming more and more common over time. These groups are well organized, keep their original identity unknown, and use an alias as their group name. These groups have some professionals as

well as amateurs who all work together. They do not always have a criminal intent; however, it is important to stop such groups from flourishing. These groups are sufficiently funded and very capable in terms of expertise and resources [34].

• Intelligence Agencies
These are intelligence agencies which are run by government agencies in most of the countries. They constantly make efforts to probe other country’s military networks and systems. To accomplish these tasks, many experts are working together. People of this group have all the latest technologies available to them and are funded largely by their respective governments. They are given tasks such as invading other country’s military systems and searching their own country’s network systems to find out possible threats. They use strong surveillance and monitoring and are the biggest threats to networks but are treated as prime safeguards for the country [34].

## 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|Smart IoT Devices

• 可穿戴设备
健身手环，如 Google Home [18] 和智能手表，如 Apple watch [19] 和三星 Galaxy Gear [20]。
• Amazon Echo
它是一个免提扬声器，连接到基于云的语音服务 [21]。
• 飞利浦 Hue
它是一种智能家居照明系统，可以远程控制，并且可以感应时间和日期以相应地调整灯光 [22]（表 3.1）。

## 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|Major Security Issues of IoT Devices

IoT 设备的安全性包括保护设备的信息和数据、硬件组件和服务免受未经授权的访问。存储在设备中的数据和信息以及传输中的数据和信息都应受到保护[16,18]. 物联网设备的主要问题如下：

• 数据完整性 数据
的完整性被定义为在整个存储生命周期中保持数据准确性和一致性的保证 [23]。
• 系统安全
本期主要关注物联网系统的整体安全性，以检测各种安全问题，设计各种安全框架并提供适当的安全指南，以维护网络的安全。
• 授权
授予特权和指定访问权限的过程称为授权[24,25]。
• 应用程序安全
性 此安全性适用于应用程序，以根据情况限制管理安全挑战或问题。一般来说，应用程序级别的安全评估可防止应用程序内的数据劫持，例如将安全漏洞降至最低的硬件或软件。
• 数据机密
性 将私人数据保密的做法称为数据机密性 [23-25]。
• 系统漏洞
研究人员在软件漏洞方面做了很多工作。各种物联网设备对不同类型的漏洞具有低质量的软件敏感性，这些漏洞在 2000 年初和 1990 年代后期很常见。这些设备容易受到密码学、身份验证、部署问题、系统软件 (s/s) 漏洞利用等的弱使用。
• 网络安全
此安全处理对可以在服务器和物联网设备之间传输的数据的通信攻击。
• 缺乏通用标准
物联网设备制造公司有各种标准。因此，区分连接到互联网的授权和非授权设备成为一个主要的挑战问题。

## 统计代写|计算机视觉作业代写Computer Vision代考|Classification of Intruders

• 个人
黑客、专业人士，甚至没有任何黑客先验知识的人都可以使用可用的工具和技术来实现他们的恶意意图。在试图使用这些工具为自己成名或只是为了好玩或报复的年轻人中，这是很常见的 [34]。
• 有组织
的人群 有犯罪意图的人群随着时间的推移变得越来越普遍。这些组组织良好，保持其原始身份未知，并使用别名作为组名。这些团体有一些专业人士

• 情报机构
这些是由大多数国家的政府机构管理的情报机构。他们不断努力探查他国的军事网络和系统。为了完成这些任务，许多专家正在共同努力。这个群体的人拥有所有可用的最新技术，并且主要由各自政府资助。他们被赋予入侵他国军事系统和搜索本国网络系统以找出可能的威胁等任务。他们使用强大的监视和监控，是对网络的最大威胁，但被视为国家的主要保障措施[34]。

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