### 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|ST326

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Fundamental principles of solvency and equity

The insurance system is regulated by intensive calculations performed in accordance with two fundamental principles. One, rooted in insurance ethics and called the principle of equity ${ }^{5}$, states that insurers should charge a premium equal to the expected value of claim payments and expenses, loaded with an amount necessary to provide adequate security for the insured, rather than to benefit those who seek unearned profit.

These ethical considerations are backed by pragmatic reasons. To get a feel of this, we quote from the memoirs [36] of Philippe de Commines, Lord of Argenton (1447-1511):
the Lord Ludovic ${ }^{6}$, being in possession of this castle, and finding all the soldiers belonging to the family devoted to his service, resolved to proceed; for he that is master of Milan has the whole government and signory at his mercy; because the principal senators, and those who have the charge of other places in that government, have their residence in that city.

And, for the size of it, I never saw a richer or finer country than the duchy of Milan: and if the prince could content himself with a yearly revenue of five hundred thousand ducats, the subjects would not grow only too wealthy, and the prince would be secure; but he raises six hundred and fifty or seven hundred thousand ducats every year, which is absolute tyranny, and makes the people prone to revolutions.

No insurer wants to encourage emigration of customers to a competitor in business, or risk getting sued for tyrannic overcharging. But none of them will agree with the systematic underpayment by its customers, as this would be fraught with serious risk of insolvency. In addition, the manager who is systematically deceiving the profit expectations of shareholders runs the risk of being dismissed by their decision before any risk of insolvency.

The insolvency, which is the insufficiency of premiums and financial resources reserved to cover losses of each insured whenever these losses happen under reasonably foreseeable circumstances, is generally regarded as a threat to the financial well-being of society as a whole and draws a particular attention from supervisory authorities. Therefore, the principle of solvency, being the second fundamental principle of the insurance system, is included in most insurance legislations ${ }^{7}$ in the form of legal requirements on certain financial resources.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Competitive and monopolistic insurance market

By monopolistic insurance market we commonly mean a market either dominated by or consisting of only one supplying firm ${ }^{8}$. In such a market, a person seeking for insurance protection has no options, therefore the price is usually too high, claim payments are too low and access to services is limited. The dominant company is not bound by fears that the dissatisfied customer would leave it for a competitor; it holds high monopoly price. Price reduction can be implemented only by a state regulatory authority ${ }^{9}$.

The opposite of a monopolistic insurance market is a competitive insurance market in which no company can influence the market significantly more than any other company. In practice, not all companies are equal. Therefore, their influence may not be the same. Still, it is reasonable to assume that in a competitive market, the impact of one or more companies, even large ones, cannot outweigh the collective impact of all other companies operating in $\mathrm{it}^{10}$.

It is believed that in a competitive insurance market the principle of equity holds automatically ${ }^{11}$ : the company which regularly overstates the cost of its poli-cies risks losing its clients to competitors. Thus, a sufficient level of competition is the true engine of the business. Moreover, it protects it from a decline in the quality of services. Provision of services of good quality, at a low price, would only be safe in the long run if it results not from a squandering of reserves, but from a more efficient business.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Parties of insurance system: insurers, policyholders

Two main parties, or two components in the triplet which we call the insurance system, are the insurers and policyholders. The former are legal entities, mainly in the form of joint-stock companies ${ }^{12}$. The latter can either be legal entities or natural persons.

The third component in this triplet is the regulator ${ }^{13}$. It works in the interests of the insureds and differs from an ordinary consumer of insurance services in that it has the power and authority to examine the financial position of any company providing insurance protection; if necessary, it can direct with recommendations and requirements based on the results of these studies. In addition, it has the right and commitment to suspend or terminate in extreme cases the work of those companies whose financial position has come into conflict with legally prescribed requirements based, inter alia, on the principle of solvency.

It should be noted that, historically, the introduction of a regulator in this system was initiated by the business: the presence of fraudulent or unscrupulous companies on the market is always a threat to the entire insurance system which is based on the trust of customers.

## 统计代写|金融统计代写Financial Statistics代考|Fundamental principles of solvency and equity

Lord Ludovic6，拥有这座城堡，并找到所有属于他的家庭的士兵都致力于为他服务，决心继续前进；因为他是米兰的主人，他的整个政府和签字人都任由他摆布；因为主要参议员，以及在那个政府中负责其他地方的人，都在那个城市有他们的住所。

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。