### 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Basic issues in quantitative educational research

SPSS主要用于数据管理、高级分析、多变量分析、商业智能。

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Finding and defining a research problem

Often, people arrive at a research problem based on their observations or experiences with educational systems. There may be some issue that sticks with an individual that they ultimately pursue as a research problem. They may arrive at that problem because of noticing a certain pattern that keeps repeating in classrooms, or by experiencing something that does/does not work in education, or by reading about current issues in education. They may feel personally invested in a particular problem or simply be bothered by the persistence of a particular issue. Sometimes, students might find a research problem through working with their advisor or major professor. They might also find a problem by working with one or more faculty on research projects and finding some component of that work fascinating. However, individuals end up being drawn toward a particular topic or issue, making that into a research problem and creating related research questions requires some refinement and definition. We will next explore the major features of a good research question.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Specific and operationally defined

Part of the difference between these two questions is the level of specificity. Narrowing down to testing specific programs creates a better question than an overly broad “what is best” kind of question. Both examples are specific in another way: they specify the kind of achievement gap (reading) and the point in time at which we intend to measure that gap (fifth grade). It is important to be as specific as possible in research questions to make them more answerable and to define the scope of a study. Researchers should specify the outcome being studied in terms of specific content, specific timeframe, and specific population. They should also specify the nature of the program, intervention, or input variable they intend to study-in our case specifying the kinds of programs that might close reading achievement gaps.

Importantly, each of those elements of the research question will need to be operationally defined. How do we plan to define and measure reading achievement? How will we define and measure race? What is our definition of a racialized achievement gap? What are the specific mechanisms involved in the after-school and the summer reading programs? Each of these elements must be carefully defined. That operational definition (operational because it is not necessarily a universal definition, but is how we have defined the idea or term for this particular “operation” or study) shapes the design of the study and makes it more possible for others to understand and potentially reproduce our study and its results.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Finding published research

Peer-reviewed journal articles are articles published in a journal (typically very discipline and subject-area specific publications) that have undergone peer review. Peer review is a process wherein a manuscript is sent to multiple acknowledged experts in the area for review. Those reviewers, typically between two and four of them, provide written comments on a manuscript that the author(s) have to address before the manuscript can be published as an article. In other cases, the reviewers might recommend rejecting the manuscript altogether (in fact, most journals reject upwards of $80 \%$ of manuscripts they receive).

Often, manuscripts go through multiple rounds of peer review before publication. This is a sort of quality control for published research. When something is published in a peer-reviewed journal, that means it has undergone extensive review by experts in the field who have determined it is fit to be published. Ideally, this helps weed out questionable studies or papers using inadequate methods. It is not a perfect system, and some papers are still published that have major problems with their design or analysis. However, it is an important quality check that helps us feel more confident in what we are reading and, later, citing.

## 广义线性模型代考

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。