### 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Benefits and compensation

SPSS主要用于数据管理、高级分析、多变量分析、商业智能。

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Benefits and compensation

Benefits and compensation are two very different things. Benefits are things participants gain by being in the study. In the above example about medical treatment, the benefit might be a reduction of symptoms or being cured of a condition. In educational research, benefits might be things like improved curricula or an increased sense of community. Benefits must be real and likely to occur for individual participants. Some studies have no known direct benefits for participants. The outcome of the study might be unlikely to benefit participants directly, but will advance the state of knowledge on some topic. Such studies are still acceptable under the principle of beneficence so long as the study presents no more than minimal risk.

Another element of many studies is compensation. There is no requirement in any regulations that a study offer compensation, but it is often included to improve recruitment efforts or to engage in reciprocity with participants. Compensation often takes the form of monetary payments (e.g., $\$ 5$for taking a survey, or entry into a drawing for a$\$100$ gift card for participating in a study). Compensation can also involve an exchange of goods or services (e.g., entry into a drawing for a video game system, or a pass for free gym access). In some cases, compensation might also take the form of academic credit, such as gaining extra credit in a course for research participation. Course credit is often trickier because compensation must be equal for all participants, and courses often have very different grading systems. Moreover, typically, any offer of course credit must be matched with an alternative way to earn that course credit to avoid coercion. We will discuss compensation more in the coming chapters as it relates to sampling strategies, but compensation (or incentives) is allowed, so long as the amount is in line with the requirements of the study.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Confidentiality and anonymity

In the vast majority of cases, data gathered from human participants must be treated with strict confidentiality. That means that researchers take reasonable steps to secure the data, like storing the data in a secure location, storing them on an encrypted drive, transmitting them via a secure means. It also means that researchers take special care to protect identifiable information like names, ID numbers, ZIP or postal codes, IP addresses, and other potentially identifiable information. In some uncommon cases, researchers might not be able to guarantee confidentiality, perhaps because of the nature of the methods (for example, group interviews, where researchers cannot guarantee that all participants in the room will maintain confidentiality), the nature of the participants (like interviews with school superintendents where it might be difficult to mask their identities adequately), or other factors. In those cases, participants should be informed of the risk of a loss of confidentiality, and benefits should outweigh that risk. However, in any case where it is possible to do so, researchers must maintain the confidentiality of their data.

An additional layer of protection for participants’ identities is anonymity. Anonymity means that even the researcher does not know the identity of the participants. It would be impossible for the researcher or anyone else to determine who had participated in the study. This means the researcher has collected no potentially identifying information. Anonymity is often possible in survey-based research, where participants’ entire participation might occur online via an anonymous link. In other kinds of research, anonymity might not be possible. In online research, one important setting to check is whether your survey software collects IP addresses by default, as those data are personally identifiable. Most survey systems allow researchers to disable IP address tracking so that data can be treated as anonymous. Anonymity lowers the risk to participants because even if the data were to be breached or accidentally exposed, the identity of participants would still not be known.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Institutional Review Board processes

In the United States, research is reviewed by a group known as the Institutional Review Board (IRB). IRBs are typically located within an institution, like a university, though sometimes an institution might rely on an external IRB. IRBs are usually comprised mostly of researchers, though regulations do require a community member representative and other non-researcher representatives for certain kinds of study proposals. IRBs are diverse and differ somewhat from institution to institution. Their specific procedures will also vary, though all will comply with the Common Federal Rule. Because of this

variation, researchers should always consult their local IRB information before proposing and conducting a study. In general, though, most IRBs follow a similar process.
First, researchers must design a study and describe that study design in detail. Most IRBs provide a form or questionnaire to guide researchers in describing their study. Typically, those forms ask for details about the study purpose, design, and who will be conducting the research. They will also ask about risks and benefits, as well as compensation. IRBs typically require researchers to attach copies of recruitment materials, consent documents, and study materials to the IRB so that reviewers can evaluate the appropriateness of those documents. IRB review falls into one of three categories: exempt, expedited, and full board. There is much variation in how different IRBs handle those categories, but typically exempt proposals are reviewed most quickly. Exemptions can fall in one of several categories, but are usually no more than minimal risk and involve anonymous data collection. Expedited applications are often reviewed more slowly than exempt because they require a higher-level review than exempt applications. There are multiple categories of expedited review in the Common Federal Rule as well, but often school-based research can qualify as expedited, depending on the specifics of the study. Finally, full-board reviews will be reviewed by an entire IRB membership at their regular meetings. Most IRBs meet once per month and will usually require several weeks of notice to review a proposal. As a result, the full-board review can take several months. Regardless of the level of review, it is very common for the IRB to request revisions to the initial proposal to ensure full compliance with all regulations. When planning a study, it is a good idea to plan in time for the initial review and one or two rounds of revision, at a minimum.

We have avoided being overly specific about the IRB process because of how much it varies across institutions. However, when planning a study, talk with people at your institution about the IRB process. Read your local IRB website or other documentation, and always use their forms and guidance in designing a study. Once your IRB approves the study, recruiting can begin. Researchers must follow the procedures they outlined in their IRB application exactly. Any deviations from the approved procedures can result in sanctions from the IRB, which can be quite serious. However, in the event a change to the procedures is necessary, IRBs also have a process for requesting a modification to the originally approved procedures. In most institutions, modifications are reviewed quite quickly.

## 广义线性模型代考

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## MATLAB代写

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