### 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|OVERVIEW OF ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN RESEARCH

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## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|OVERVIEW OF ETHICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN RESEARCH

In this final section, we overview the landscape in the United States for research ethics. Many of these principles are common to other contexts, but the language, specific regulations, and processes will vary. If you are in a context other than the United States, be sure to consult your ethical regulations. Ethics comprises a broad field of philosophy, but this section is much more narrowly defined. Research ethics with human research specifically refers to the norms, traditions, and legal requirements of doing research with human participants. In most locations, these regulations are referred to as Human Subjects Research (HSR) regulations. As a note for writing about research, the convention is to refer to humans as research participants (not subjects). Humans willingly participate in research; they are not subjected to research. Animals are often referred to as subjects, though, and the regulations date from a time where “subjects” was the common term for humans as well.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Historical considerations

Entire books have been written on the historical context for modern research ethics regulations. Here, we briefly describe a few key events that led to the system of regulation currently in place in the United States. Of course, other nations have a history that overlaps with and diverges from that of the United States, but many of the same events shaped thinking about ethics regulations in many places. One moment often identified as a key historical marker in research ethics is the Nuremberg Trials that followed World War II. While these trials are best known as the trials in which Nazi leaders were convicted of war crimes, the tribunal also took up the question of research. In Nazi Germany and occupied territories, doctors and researchers employed by the government carried out gruesome and inhumane experiments on unwilling subjects, many of whom were also in marginalized groups (such as Jewish people, LGBTQ people, and Romani people). What emerged from the tribunals was a general condemnation of such work but not much in the way of specific research regulations.

In the United States, the key moment in driving the current systems of regulation was the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) Tuskegee Syphilis Study. In the current U.S. government, the PHS includes agencies like the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), plus multiple other parts of the Department of Health and Human Services. Beginning in 1932 , the PHS began a study of Black men in Tuskegee, Alabama, who were infected with syphilis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). At the time, there was no known cure for syphilis and few protective measures. The PHS set out to observe the course of the disease through death in these men. An important note is that all men in the study were infected with syphilis before being enrolled in the study (the PHS did not actively infect men in Tuskegee with syphilis, though the PHS did actively infect men in Nicaragua for decades in studies that only recently became known to the public). Tuskegee was selected as a site for the study because it was very remote, very poor, and, in segregated Alabama, entirely Black. PHS officials believed the site was isolated enough both physically and socially to allow the study to go on without being discovered or interrupted. Shortly after the study began, penicillin became available as a treatment, and it was extremely effective in treating syphilis. By 1943, it was widely available. However, the men enrolled in the Tuskegee study were neither informed of the existence of penicillin nor treated with the antibiotic. The PHS Tuskegee Syphilis Study continued for 40 years, finally ending in 1972 after a whistleblower brought the study to light. The study had long-term ramifications for medical mistrust among Black populations in the United States, especially in the South (Hagen, 2005). Those continued effects of the study are associated with lower treatment seeking and treatment adherence among Black patients in Alabama, for example (Kennedy, Mathis, \& Woods, 2007). In 1979, the Belmont Report was issued, leading directly to the current system of ethical regulations in place in the United States, and we will see clearly how that study is directly tied to the elements of the Belmont Report.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|The Belmont Reports

The Belmont Report was issued by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1979 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.). The commission was created by the U.S. Congress in 1974 in large part as a response to the PHS Tuskegee Syphilis Study. It outlined the broad principles for conducting ethical research with human subjects. Its principles formed the core of the research regulations in the United States and included: Respect for Persons, Beneficence, and Justice.

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