### 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Reading published research and finding gaps

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• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Reading published research and finding gaps

As you read more and more recently published research, you will begin to notice what’s missing. Sometimes it will be a specific idea, variable, or concept that starts to feel stuck in your head but isn’t present in the published research. Other times, you will have some idea you hope to find what the research has to say about but will be unable to find much on the topic. Of course, sometimes what we think is missing in the literature is really just stated in another way. So, it is important to search for synonyms, different phrasings, and alternative names for things. However, over time, as you read, you will start to notice the areas that have not yet been addressed in the published research. Those gaps could be a population that has not been adequately studied, a component of theoretical models that seems to be missing, a variable researcher have not adequately included in prior work, or a reframing of the existing questions. Those gaps are often a great way to identify research problems and questions for future research. Finding gaps is not the only way to identify necessary new research, but it is a common method for doing so.

One key point in reading the published research is that authors write from a variety of different perspectives. Some are engaging different theoretical models that seek toexplain the same problem using different tools. Other times, the differences reflect qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method differences in how research is conceptualized and presented. The differences also might relate to theories of knowledge or epistemologies. Those epistemologies shape vastly different ways of writing and different ways of presenting data and findings or results. In the next section, we briefly describe the methodological approaches that are common in educational research: qualitative and quantitative methods. We then turn to questions of epistemology.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS

There are two main approaches to educational research: qualitative and quantitative. Importantly, the distinctions between these are not as cut and dried as they might appear in our description of them. While we provide some ways of distinguishing between these kinds of research, they do not exist in opposition to one another. Many researchers make use of elements of qualitative and quantitative methods (multimethod research) and others blend qualitative and quantitative approaches and analyses (mixed-method research). In practice, the lines between methods can become blurry, but the purpose of this section is to provide some basic sense that there are different kinds of approaches that answer different kinds of questions with different sorts of data. In general, quantitative research deals with numbers and things that can be quantified (turned into numbers). This textbook focuses on quantitative research. Qualitative research deals with things that are not numbers or that cannot be quantified (like textual or interview data), though some qualitative research also includes numbers, especially frequencies or counts. These two kinds of research also ask different kinds of questions. We will briefly explain both using the questions: What kinds of questions can be asked? What kinds of data can be analyzed? How are the data analyzed? What kinds of inferences are possible?

• What kinds of questions can be asked? In quantitative research, questions typically center around group differences, changes in scores over time, or the relationship among variables. Usually, these questions are focused on explaining or predicting some kind of quantifiable outcome. How are test scores different between groups getting treatment A versus treatment B? How does attention change across three kinds of tasks? What is the relationship between attention and test score? These questions are all quantitative sorts of questions, and all involve specifying a hypothesis beforehand and testing if that hypothesis was correct. Qualitative research answers very different kinds of questions. They usually do not involve pre-formulated hypotheses that are subjected to some kind of verification test. Instead, qualitative research usually seeks deep description and understanding of some idea, concept, discourse, phenomenon, or situation. How do students think about the purpose of testing? How do teachers think about attention in planning lessons? Qualitative work will normally not test group differences or evaluate the association between variables but will instead seek to provide a deeper understanding of a specific moment, situation, concept, person, or idea.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|Epistemology and the nature of knowledge

One way in which various research approaches differ is in their epistemology. While many quantitative methods courses and books avoid this topic entirely, knowing about the major epistemological perspectives can help clarify how research approaches differ. Epistemology refers to an individual’s beliefs about truth and knowledge. For our purposes, we focus on some key questions: What can we know? How do we generate and validate knowledge? What is the purpose of research? We will briefly overview several major perspectives. We do want to be clear that our brief treatment in this section cannot adequately capture the nuance, diversity, or depth of any of these perspectives, but we intend to highlight the basics of each.

## 统计代写|SPSS代写代考|TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS

• 可以问什么样的问题？在定量研究中，问题通常围绕群体差异、分数随时间的变化或变量之间的关系。通常，这些问题的重点是解释或预测某种可量化的结果。接受治疗 A 组和接受治疗 B 组之间的测试分数有何不同？注意力如何在三种任务中发生变化？注意力和考试成绩有什么关系？这些问题都是定量问题，都涉及事先指定一个假设并测试该假设是否正确。定性研究回答了非常不同类型的问题。它们通常不涉及经过某种验证测试的预先制定的假设。反而，定性研究通常寻求对某些想法、概念、话语、现象或情况的深入描述和理解。学生如何看待考试的目的？教师如何看待计划课程中的注意力？定性工作通常不会测试群体差异或评估变量之间的关联，而是寻求对特定时刻、情况、概念、人物或想法提供更深入的理解。

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