### 计算机代写|数据库作业代写SQL代考|Time Series Analysis

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写数据库SQL方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写数据库SQL代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写数据库SQL相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 计算机代写|数据库作业代写SQL代考|Date, Datetime, and Time Manipulations

Dates and times come in a wide variety of formats, depending on the data source. We often need or want to transform the raw data format for our output, or to perform calculations to arrive at new dates or parts of dates. For example, the data set might contain transaction timestamps, but the goal of the analysis is to trend monthly sales. At other times, we might want to know how many days or months have elapsed since a particular event. Fortunately, SQL has powerful functions and formatting capabilities that can transform just about any raw input to almost any output we might need for analysis.

In this section, I’ll show you how to convert between time zones, and then I’ll go into depth on formatting dates and datetimes. Next, I’ll explore date math and time manipulations, including those that make use of intervals. An interval is a data type that holds a span of time, such as a number of months, days, or hours. Although data can he stored in a datahase table as an interval type, in practice I rapely see this done, sn I will talk ahout intervals alnngside the date and time finctions that you can use them with. Last, I’ll discuss some special considerations when joining or otherwise combining data from different sources.

## 计算机代写|数据库作业代写SQL代考|Time Zone Conversions

Understanding the standard time zone used in a data set can prevent misunderstandings and mistakes further into the analysis process. Time zones split the world into north-south regions that observe the same time. Time zones allow different parts of the world to have similar clock times for daytime and nighttime-so, for example, the sun is overhead at 12 p.m. wherever you are in the world. The zones follow irregular boundaries that are as much political as geographic ones. Most are one hour apart, but some are offset only 30 or 45 minutes, and so there are more than 30 time zones spanning the globe. Many countries that are distant from the equator observe daylight savings time for parts of the year as well, but there are exceptions, such as in the

United States and Australia, where some states observe daylight savings time and others do not. Each time zone has a standard abbreviation, such as PST for Pacific Standard Time and PDT for Pacific Daylight Time.

Many databases are set to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the global standard used to regulate clocks, and record events in this time zone. It replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which you might still see if your data comes from an older database. UTC does not have daylight savings time, so it stays consistent all year long. This turns out to be quite useful for analysis. I remember one time a panicked product manager asked me to figure out why sales on a particular Sunday dropped so much compared to the prior Sunday. I spent hours writing queries and investigating possible causes before eventually figuring out that our data was recorded in Pacific Time (PT). Daylight savings started early Sunday morning, the database clock moved ahead 1 hour, and the day had only 23 hours instead of 24 , and thus sales appeared to drop. Half a year later we had a corresponding 25 -hour day, when sales appeared unusually high.

## 计算机代写|数据库作业代写SQL代考|Date and Timestamp Format Conversions

Dates and timestamps are key to time series analysis. Due to the wide variety of ways in which dates and times can be represented in source data, it is almost inevitable that you will need to convert date formats at some point. In this section, I’ll cover several of the most common conversions and how to accomplish them with SQL: changing the data type, extracting parts of a date or timestamp, and creating a date or timestamp from parts. I’ll begin by introducing some handy functions that return the current date and/or time.

Returning the current date or time is a common analysis task-for cxample, to include a timestamp for the result sel or to use in dale math, covered in the nexi section. The current date and time are referred to as system time, and while returning them is easy to do with SQL, there are some syntax differences between databases.

To return the current date, some databases have a current_date function, with no parentheses:
SELECT current_date;
There is a wider variety of functions to return the current date and time. Check your database’s documentation or just experiment by typing into a SQL window to see whether a function returns a value or an error. The functions with parentheses do not take arguments, but it is important to include the parentheses:
current_timestamp
localtimestamp
get_date()
now()
Finally, there are functions to return only the timestamp portion of the current system time. Again, consult documentation or experiment to figure out which function(s) to use with your database:
current_time
localtime
timeofday()
SQL has a number of functions for changing the format of dates and times. To reduce the granularity of a timestamp, use the date_trunc function. The first argument is a text value indicating the time period level to which to truncate the timestamp in the second argument. The result is a timestamp value:
date_trunc (text, timestamp)
SELECT date_trunc(‘month’ , ‘2020-10-04 12:33:35’ : : timestamp);
date_trunc (text, timestamp)
SELECT date_trunc(‘month’ ,’2020-10-04 12:33:35′: : timestamp);
date_trunc
$\cdots 2020-10-0100: 00: 00$
date_trunc
2020-10-01 00:00:00

## 计算机代写|数据库作业代写SQL代考|Date and Timestamp Format Conversions

SELECT current_date;

current_timestamp
localtimestamp
get_date()
now()

current_time
localtime
timeofday()
SQL 有许多用于更改日期和时间格式的函数。要减少时间戳的粒度，请使用 date_trunc 函数。第一个参数是一个文本值，指示要将第二个参数中的时间戳截断到的时间段级别。结果是一个时间戳值：
date_trunc (text, timestamp)
SELECT date_trunc(‘month’ , ‘2020-10-04 12:33:35’ : : timestamp);
date_trunc(文本，时间戳)
SELECT date_trunc(‘month’ ,’2020-10-04 12:33:35′: : timestamp);

⋯2020−10−0100:00:00
date_trunc
2020-10-01 00:00:00

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。