## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|AEM3230

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写管理会计Management Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写管理会计Management Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写管理会计Management Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|Comparing actual and planned outcomes

The final stages in the process outlined in Figure $1.1$ involve comparing actual and planned outcomes and responding to divergencies from plan. The managerial function of control consists of the measurement, reporting and subsequent correction of performance in an attempt to ensure that the firm’s objectives and plans are achieved.

To monitor performance, the accountant produces performance reports and presents them to the managers who are responsible for implementing the various decisions. These reports compare actual outcomes (actual costs and revenues) with planned outcomes (budgeted costs and revenues) and should be issued at regular intervals. Performance reports provide feedback information and should highlight those activities that do not conform to plans, so that managers can devote their limited time to focusing mainly on these items. This process represents the application of management by exception, which involves a focus on the ‘vital few’ not the ‘trivial many’ events that take place in the organization. Effective control requires that corrective action be taken so that actual outcomes conform to planned outcomes. Alternatively, the plans may require modification if the comparisons indicate that the plans are no longer attainable. Note that these performance reports will contain both financial and nonfinancial information. We shall develop this notion throughout the book and particularly focus on it in Chapter $21 .$

The process of taking corrective action or modifying the plans if the comparisons indicate that actual outcomes do not conform to planned outcomes, is indicated by the arrowed lines in Figure $1.1$ linking stages 6 and 4 and 6 and 2 . These arrowed lines represent ‘feedback loops. They signify that the process is dynamic and stress the interdependencies between the various stages in the process. The feedback loop between stages 6 and 2 indicates that the plans should be regularly reviewed, and if they are no longer attainable then alternative courses of action must be considered for achieving the organization’s objectives. The second loop stresses the corrective action taken so that actual outcomes conform to planned outcomes. Chapters 15 to 18 focus on the planning and control process.

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|Global competition

Throughout the last few decades reductions in tariffs and duties on imports and exports, and dramatic improvements in transportation and communication systems, have resulted in many firms operating in a global market. Prior to this, many organizations operated in a protected competitive environment. Barriers of communication and geographical distance, and sometimes protected markets, limited the ability of overseas companies to compete in domestic markets. There was little incentive for firms to maximize efficiency and improve management practices, or to minimize costs, as cost increases could often be passed on to customers. During the 1990s, however, organizations began to encounter severe competition from international competitors who offered high-quality products at low prices. Manufacturing companies can now establish global networks for acquiring raw materials and components, and distributing goods overseas through the development of sophisticated supply chains. Service organizations can communicate with customers and overseas offices instantaneously using internet and digital technologies. These changes have enabled competitors to gain access to domestic markets throughout the world. Nowadays, organizations have to compete against the best companies in the world. This new competitive environment has increased the demand for information relating to quality and customer satisfaction, and cost information relating to cost management, ways to add value and profitability analysis by product/service lines and geographical locations.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|CACC410

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写管理会计Management Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写管理会计Management Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写管理会计Management Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|Identifying objectives

This is an area in which there is considerable controversy. Economic theory traditionally assumes that firms seek to maximize profits for the owners of the firm or, more precisely, the maximization of shareholders’ wealth, which, we as shall see in Chapter 13, is equivalent to the maximization of the present value of future cash flows. Various arguments have been used to support the profit maximization objective. There is the legal argument that the ordinary shareholders are the owners of the firm, which therefore should be run for their benefit by trustee managers. Another argument supporting the profit objective is that profit maximization leads to the maximization of overall economic welfare. That is, by doing the best for yourself, you are unconsciously doing the best for society. These are typical capitalist arguments for the profit maximizing objective. However, it seems a reasonable belief that the interests of firms (and managers and employees) will be better served by a larger profit than by a smaller profit, so that maximization is at least a useful approximation. Some writers (e.g. Simon, 1959) have argued that many managers are content to find a plan that provides satisfactory profits rather than to maximize profits.

In contrast, organizational and behavioural scientists, such as Cyert and March (1969), have argued that the firm is a coalition of various different groups – shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers and the government – each of whom must be ‘paid’ a minimum to participate in the coalition. Any excess benefits after meeting these minimum constraints are seen as being the object of bargaining between the various groups. In addition, a firm is subject to constraints of a societal nature. Maintaining a clean environment, employing disabled workers and providing social and recreation facilities are all examples of social goals that a firm may pursue. We are seeing increasing interest in the responsibility of firms to a wider society at the present time. This is demonstrated by calls for firms to publish a Triple Bottom Line of performance in terms of social and environmental responsibility in addition to the economic performance of profitability. It is only by addressing these three requirements that firms can be said to be ‘sustainable’ (see Figure 1.2). We shall discuss the implications for management accounting of these developments in Chapter $23 .$

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|The search for alternative courses of action

The second stage in the decision-making model is a search for a range of possible courses of action (or strategies) that might enable the objectives to be achieved. If the management of a company concentrates entirely on its present product range and markets, and market shares and profits are allowed to decline, there is a danger that the company will be unable to survive in the future. If the business is to survive, management must identify potential opportunities and threats in the current environment and take specific steps now so that the organization will not be taken by surprise by future developments. In particular, the company should consider one or more of the following courses of action:
1 developing new products for sale in existing markets (product development);
2 developing new markets for existing products (market development);
3 developing new products for new markets (diversification).
The search for alternative courses of action involves the acquisition of information concerning future opportunities and environments; it is the most difficult and important stage of the decision-making process. We shall examine this search process in more detail in Chapter 15. Note that while the management accountant might provide information to support this judgement, it involves executives from all functions including marketing, manufacturing and service operations, R\&D, IT, etc.

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|The search for alternative courses of action

1 开发新产品以在现有市场上销售（产品开发）；
2 为现有产品开发新市场（市场开发）；
3 为新市场开发新产品（多元化）。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|ACCTING2500

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写管理会计Management Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写管理会计Management Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写管理会计Management Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|THE USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

Accounting is a language that communicates economic information to various parties (known as stakeholders) who have an interest in the organization. Stakeholders fall into several groups (e.g. managers, shareholders and potential investors, employees, suppliers and customers, creditors and the government) and each of these groups has its own requirements for information:

• Managers require information that will assist them in their decision-making and control activities; for example, information is needed on the estimated selling prices, costs, demand, competitive position and profitability of various products/services that are provided by the organization.
• Shareholders require information on the value of their investment and the income that is derived from their shareholding. Likewise, potential investors are interested in their potential returns.
• Employees require information on the ability of the firm to meet wage demands and avoid redundancies, their potential for continued employment.
• Creditors and the providers of loan capital require information on a firm’s ability to meet its financial obligations.
• Government agencies such as the Central Statistical Office collect accounting information and require such information as the details of sales activity, profits, investments, stocks (i.e. inventories), dividends paid, the proportion of profits absorbed by taxation and so on. In addition, government taxation authorities require information on the amount of profits that are subject to taxation. All this information is important for determining policies to manage the economy.
The need to provide accounting information is not confined to business organizations. Non-profitmaking organizations such as churches, charitable organizations, clubs and government units such as local authorities, also require accounting information for decision-making and for reporting the results of their activities. For example, a tennis club will require information on the cost of undertaking its various activities so that a decision can be made as to the amount of the annual subscription that it will charge to its members. Similarly, municipal authorities, such as local government and public sector organizations, need information on the costs of undertaking specific activities so that decisions can be made as to which activities will be undertaken and the resources that must be raised to finance them.

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MANAGEMENT

The major differences between these two branches of accounting are:

• Legal requirements. There is a statutory requirement for public limited companies to produce annual financial accounts, regardless of whether or not management regards this information as useful.
Management accounting, by contrast, is entirely optional and information should be produced only if it is considered that the benefits it offers management exceed the cost of collecting it.
• Focus on individual parts or segments of the business. Financial accounting reports describe the whole of the business, whereas management accounting focuses on parts of the organization; for example, the cost and profitability of products, services, departments, customers and activities.
• Generally accepted accounting principles. Financial accounting statements must be prepared to conform with the legal requirements and the generally accepted accounting principles established by the regulatory bodies such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the USA, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) in the UK and the International Accounting Standards Board (the Board). These requirements are essential to ensure uniformity and consistency, which make intercompany and historical comparisons possible. Financial accounting data should be verifiable and objective. In contrast, management accountants are not required to adhere to generally accepted accounting principles when providing managerial information for internal purposes. Instead, the focus is on serving the management’s needs and providing information that is useful to managers when they are carrying out their decision-making, planning and control functions. Indeed, it could be said that the best management accounting is that which is most useful to the manager, and this varies with the business size, sector, technology and the circumstances of the question or problem.
• Time dimension. Financial accounting reports what has happened in the past in an organization, i.e. it is historical; management accounting is concerned with future information as well as past information. Decisions are concerned with future events and management, therefore, requires details of expected future costs and revenues, which by definition are predictions and not known with certainty.
• Report frequency and less emphasis on precision. A detailed set of financial accounts is published annually and less detailed accounts are published semi-annually. Management usually requires information more quickly than this if it is to act on it. Managers are often more concerned with timeliness rather than precision. They prefer a good estimate now rather than a precise answer much later. Consequently, management accounting reports on various activities may be ad hoc investigations or be prepared at daily, weekly or monthly intervals.

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|THE USERS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

• 管理人员需要能够帮助他们进行决策和控制活动的信息；例如，需要有关本组织提供的各种产品/服务的估计售价、成本、需求、竞争地位和盈利能力的信息。
• 股东需要有关其投资价值和从其股权中获得的收入的信息。同样，潜在投资者对他们的潜在回报感兴趣。
• 员工需要了解公司满足工资要求和避免裁员的能力，以及他们继续就业的潜力。
• 债权人和贷款资本提供者需要有关公司履行其财务义务的能力的信息。
• 中央统计局等政府机构收集会计信息，要求提供销售活动、利润、投资、股票（即存货）、支付的股息、税收吸收的利润比例等详细信息。此外，政府税务机关要求提供应纳税的利润金额信息。所有这些信息对于确定管理经济的政策都很重要。
提供会计信息的需要不仅限于商业组织。教堂、慈善组织、俱乐部和地方政府等政府单位等非营利组织也需要会计信息来进行决策和报告其活动结果。例如，网球俱乐部将需要有关开展各种活动的成本信息，以便可以决定向其会员收取的年度订阅费用。同样，地方政府和公共部门组织等市政当局需要有关开展特定活动成本的信息，以便可以决定将开展哪些活动以及必须筹集的资金来资助这些活动。

## 会计代写|管理会计代写Management Accounting代考|DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MANAGEMENT

• 法律要求。公共有限公司有法定要求编制年度财务账目，无论管理层是否认为该信息有用。
相比之下，管理会计完全是可选的，只有当认为它为管理提供的好处超过收集它的成本时，才应该产生信息。
• 专注于业务的各个部分或细分市场。财务会计报告描述了整个业务，而管理会计则侧重于组织的各个部分；例如，产品、服务、部门、客户和活动的成本和盈利能力。
• 一般公认会计原则。财务会计报表的编制必须符合美国财务会计准则委员会 (FASB)、英国财务报告委员会 (FRC) 和国际监管机构等监管机构制定的法律要求和公认会计原则会计准则委员会（董事会）。这些要求对于确保一致性和一致性至关重要，这使得公司间和历史比较成为可能。财务会计数据应该是可核实的和客观的。相比之下，在为内部目的提供管理信息时，管理会计师不需要遵守公认的会计原则。反而，重点是满足管理层的需要，并在管理人员执行决策、规划和控制职能时提供对他们有用的信息。事实上，可以说最好的管理会计是对经理最有用的，这会随着企业规模、部门、技术和问题或问题的情况而变化。
• 时间维度。财务会计报告一个组织过去发生的事情，即它是历史的；管理会计关注未来信息和过去信息。决策与未来事件和管理有关，因此，需要预期未来成本和收入的详细信息，根据定义，这些都是预测，并且不确定。
• 报告频率和对精确性的强调较少。详细的财务账目每年发布一次，不太详细的账目每半年发布一次。如果管理层要采取行动，通常需要比这更快的信息。管理者通常更关心及时性而不是精确性。他们现在更喜欢一个好的估计，而不是很久以后的精确答案。因此，关于各种活动的管理会计报告可能是临时调查或每天、每周或每月准备一次。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|FNS50217

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The balance sheet

A balance sheet is a document designed to show the state of affairs of an entity at a particular date. Students and practitioners of bookkeeping regard the balance sheet as the culmination of a long and complex recording process. If it does not balance, mistakes have definitely been made during the preparation process; they will have to be found. The public tends to regard the balance sheet, which contains lots of big numbers and yet apparently magically arrives at the same figure twice, as proof of both the complicated nature of accountancy and of the lechnical competence and reliability of the accountants and auditors involved.

However, reduced to its simplest, a balance sheet consists of two lists. The first is a list of the resources that are under the control of the entity – it is a list of assets. This English word derives from the Latin ad satis (to sufficient), in the sense that such items could be used to pay debts. One modern definition of ‘asset’ is that used by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in the 2018 version of its conceptual framework:

An asset is a present economic resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events, where an economic resource is a right that has the potential to produce economic benefits.

The reference to a past event is so that accountants can identify the asset. It also helps them to attribute a monetary value to it.

The second list shows where the assets came from, i.e. the monetary amounts of the sources from which the entity obtained its present stock of resources. Since those sources will require repayment or recompense in some way, it follows that this second list can also be regarded as a list of claims against the resources. The entity will have to settle these claims at some time, and this second list can therefore be regarded as amounts due to others.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|The income statement

It has been shown that any transaction, event or adjustment can be recorded in a given balance sheet to produce a new and updated balance sheet. Also, provided that one follows the logic of the resources-and-claims idea, the new balance sheet must inevitably balance.

It would be possible to carry on this process in the same way for ever, producing an endless series of balance sheets after each transaction. This would not be very practicable. Instead, users of accounting information may wish to see balance sheets monthly, half-yearly or yearly. They may also require current information about the results of the operating activities of the business. In order to provide this, it is necessary to collect together and summarise those items that are part of the calculation of the profit figure for the particular period.

The transaction that led to profit in the example in Section $2.2$ (the sale of inventory) was expressed as an increase in assets. The transaction that led to a reduction in the profit (the wages) was expressed as a fall in assets. The calculation of profit will generally consist of these positive and negative elements. On the one hand, when the business makes a sale, then the proceeds of the sale are a positive part of the profit calculation, which is referred to as an income. On the other hand, the operating process involves the consumption of some business resources, an expense, which is the negative part. In the example explored in detail earlier, there were two such items. First, the resource of inventory was used, and so the original cost of the used inventory was included as a negative component of the profit calculation. Second, some of the resource of cash was used to pay the wages that had necessarily been incurred in the process of the business’ operations. The cost of these wages is also a negative component of the profit calculation. The two components can be seen in the ‘owner’ column of Table 2.4.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|ACCT2110

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Excitement in accounting

Accounting is not universally regarded as an exciting and exhilarating area of activity or study, but it can be fascinating, in several ways:

• in itself, because it is an incomplete and rapidly evolving discipline and its study contains uncertainty and discovery;
• in application, because the theoretical ideas become intimately bound up with human attitude and human nature;
• In effects, because it has a major impact on financial decisions, share prices, taxes, etc.;
• in the international sphere, because of its integration with cultural, economic and political change.

At present, a further element exists that increases the interest of accounting. In this millennium there has been enormous change in several factors connected with accounting. Business is increasingly being carried out electronically; old types of industry are giving way to new; markets have become global; accounting information can travel faster and more cheaply.

The final reason why accounting can be interesting – one that particularly relates to the authors – is that we are seeking to communicate the importance of accounting in a genuinely international rather than a national context. We hope that our work leads to greater understanding by readers (and between readers), whatever their backgrounds and starting points.

The structure of the remainder of this book is as follows. Part 1 continues by investigating the fundamental principles and conventions of accounting thought and practice. Chapter 2 outlines the basic financial statements and their relationships. There is also a related appendix to the book (Appendix A) which introduces double-entry bookkeeping. Chapter 3 looks at the main conventions underlying accounting, particularly at the framework of concepts used by the IASB. For the reader with no accounting background, it is essential to understand the thinking that underlies what accountants do. For the reader with previous accounting or possibly bookkeeping experience, the two chapters should still be regarded as essential reading, for they bring out the relationships between the varlous ideas and techniques. Depending on the nature of the students and the course, a study of the double-entry material in Appendix A might be suitable before, after or alongside Chapter $3 .$

Chapter 4 then looks at ways in which financial reporting can be regulated, and how it is regulated in several countries. Chapter 5 introduces the influences on, and the nature of, international differences in accounting. Chapter 6 outlines the normal contents of the annual reports of large commercial entities. The standards of the IASB are used as the main point of reference. Finally in Part 1, Chapter 7 introduces the topic of analysis: how to interpret financlal statements and how to compare one entity with another.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Excitement in accounting

• 就其本身而言，因为它是一门不完整且快速发展的学科，其研究包含不确定性和发现；
• 在应用上，因为理论思想与人的态度和人性密切相关；
• 实际上，因为它对财务决策、股价、税收等有重大影响；
• 在国际领域，因为它与文化、经济和政治变革相结合。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|PACC6000

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务会计Financial Accounting方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务会计Financial Accounting代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务会计Financial Accounting相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Purposes and users of accounting

Accounting began as a practical activity in response to perceived needs. It has progressed in the same way, adapting to meet changes in the demands made on it. Where the needs differed in different countries, accounting developed in different ways, essentially on the Darwinian principle: useful accounting survived.

At a general level, accounting exists to provide a service. In the box below there are three definitions. These have all been taken from the same economic and cultural source (the United States) because that country has the longest history of attempting explicit definitions of this type. Note that each suggested definition seems broader than the previous one, and the third definition does not restrict accounting to financially quantifiable information. As will be explored in this book, attitudes to accounting and its role differ substantially around the world and certainly between European countries.

If information is to be useful, then some obvious questions arise: useful to whom and for what purposes? A number of different types of people are likely to be dealing with business entities:

1. Managers. These are the people who have to make decisions, both day-to-day and strategically, about how the scarce resources within their control are to be used. They need information that will enable them to predict the likely outcomes of alternative courses of action. As part of this process, they need feedback on the results of their previous decisions in order to extend successful aspects of the decisions, and to adapt and improve the unsuccessful aspects.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Accounting regulation and the accountancy profession

Neither extreme is consistent with modern capitalist-based economies, but the balance adopted between the two varies around the world. The points mentioned so far in this section only consider the market and the state, but there is a third important force to consider, namely the private sector, including the accountancy profession.

The profession is organised into associations under national jurisdictions. For example, the European Union requires two types of organisation: qualifying bodies (which set accountancy exams and might set technical rules for accounting and auditing) and regulatory bodies (which are under government control and which supervise statutory audits). In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, various accountancy bodies are allowed to fulfil both roles, and many members of the profession do not work as auditors. In some other countries, such as France and Germany, the two roles are fulfilled by separate bodies of ‘accountants’ and ‘auditors’, e.g. in France by experts comptables and commissaires aux comptes, respectively. Professional bodies are responsible for monitoring the activities of their members and for standards of both general ethics and professional competence. However, in some countries, the profession also takes on much of the role of creating the auditing rules under which its members will operate. In some countries (e.g. Australia, Denmark, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States), the rules that govern how entities perform their financial reporting were also once set by professional standard-setting bodies. In many cases, this role has been passed to committees of accountants and others which are still formally independent of governments.

## 会计代写|财务会计代写Financial Accounting代考|Purposes and users of accounting

1. 经理。这些人必须在日常和战略上就如何使用他们控制的稀缺资源做出决定。他们需要使他们能够预测替代行动方案的可能结果的信息。作为此过程的一部分，他们需要对先前决策的结果进行反馈，以扩展决策的成功方面，并调整和改进不成功的方面。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|AFM219

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务管理Financial Management方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务管理Financial Management代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务管理Financial Management相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Too Much Growth

This is the crux of the sustainable growth problem for rapidly expanding firms: Because increasing operating efficiency is not always possible and altering financial policies is not always wise, we see that it is entirely possible for a company to grow too fast for its own good. This is particularly true for smaller companies, which may do inadequate financial planning. Such companies see sales growth as something to be maximized and think too little of the financial consequences. They do not realize that rapid growth has them on a treadmill; the faster they grow, the more cash they need, even when they are profitable. They can meet this need for a time by increasing leverage, but eventually they will reach their debt capacity, lenders will refuse additional credit requests, and the companies will find themselves without the cash to pay their bills. All of this can be prevented if managers understand that growth above the company’s sustainable rate creates financial challenges that must be anticipated and managed.

Please understand; I am not suggesting that a company’s actual growth rate should always equal its sustainable growth rate, or even closely approximate it. Rather, I am saying that management must anticipate any disparity between actual and sustainable growth and have a plan in place for managing that disparity. The challenge is, first, to recognize the disparity and, second, to create a viable strategy to manage it.

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Balanced Growth

Here is another way to think about sustainable growth. Recalling that a company’s return on assets, ROA, can be expressed as the product of its profit margin times its asset turnover, we can rewrite the sustainable growth equation $\mathrm{as}^{2}$
$$g^{}=R \hat{T} \times \mathrm{ROA}$$ Here, $R$ and $\hat{T}$ reflect the company’s financial policies, while ROA summarizes its operating performance. So if a company’s retention ratio is 25 percent and its assets-to-equity ratio is $1.6$, its sustainable growth equation becomes simply $$g^{}=0.4 \times \mathrm{ROA}$$
This equation says that given stable financial policies, sustainable growth varies linearly with return on assets. Figure $4.2$ graphs this relationship with sales growth on the vertical axis, ROA on the horizontal axis, and the sustainable growth equation as the upward-sloping, solid, diagonal line.

The line bears the label “Balanced growth” because the company can self-finance only the sales growth-ROA combinations lying on this line. All growth-return combinations lying off this line generate either cash deficits or cash surpluses. Thus, rapidly growing, marginally profitable companies will plot in the upper-left portion of the graph, implying cash deficits, while slowly expanding, highly profitable companies will plot in the lower-right portion, implying cash surpluses. I should emphasize that the phrase “selffinance” does not imply constant debt but rather a constant debt-to-equity ratio. Debt can increase but only in proportion to equity.

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Balanced Growth

$$g=R \hat{T} \times \mathrm{ROA}$$

$$g=0.4 \times \mathrm{ROA}$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|FINA3326

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务管理Financial Management方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务管理Financial Management代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务管理Financial Management相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Sustainable Growth

We can think of successful companies as passing through a predictable life cycle. The cycle begins with a startup phase in which the company loses money while developing products or services and establishing a foothold in the market. This is followed by a rapid growth phase in which the company is profitable but is growing so rapidly that it needs regular infusions of outside financing. The third phase is maturity, characterized by a decline in growth and a switch from absorbing outside financing to generating more cash than the firm can profitably reinvest. The last phase is decline, during which the company is perhaps marginally profitable, generates more cash than it can reinvest internally, and suffers declining sales. Mature and declining companies frequently devote considerable time and money to seeking investment opportunities in new products or firms that are still in their growth phase.
We begin our discussion by looking at the growth phase, when financing needs are most pressing. Later, we will consider the growth problems of mature and declining firms. Central to our discussion is the notion of sustainable growth. Intuitively, sustainable growth is merely a formalization of the old adage “It takes money to make money.” Increased sales require more assets of all types, which must be paid for. Retained profits and the accompanying new borrowing generate some cash, but only limited amounts. Unless the company is prepared to sell common stock or borrow excessive amounts, this limit puts a ceiling on the growth it can achieve without straining its resources. This is the firm’s sustainable growth rate.

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|The Sustainable Growth Equation

Let’s begin by writing a simple equation to express the dependence of growth on financial resources. For this purpose, assume

• The company has a target financing, or capital, structure and a target dividend policy it wishes to maintain.
• Management is unable or unwilling to sell new equity.
We will say more about these assumptions soon. For now, it is enough to realize that although they may not be appropriate for all firms, the assumptions describe a great many.

Figure $4.1$ shows the rapidly growing company’s plight. It represents the firm’s balance sheet as two rectangles, one for assets and the other for liabilities and owners’ equity. The two long, unshaded rectangles represent the balance sheet at the beginning of the year. The rectangles are, of course, the same height because assets must equal liabilities plus owners’ equity. Now, if the company wants to increase sales during the coming year, it must also increase assets such as inventory, accounts receivable, and productive capacity. The shaded area on the assets side of the figure represents the value of new assets necessary to support the increased sales. Because the company will not be selling equity by assumption, the cash required to pay for this increase in assets must come from retained profits and new debt.

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|The Sustainable Growth Equation

• 公司有一个目标融资或资本结构，以及它希望维持的目标股息政策。
• 管理层不能或不愿出售新股权。
我们很快就会更多地谈论这些假设。就目前而言，认识到尽管它们可能并不适合所有公司，但这些假设描述了很多公司就足够了。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|GMBA6006

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写财务管理Financial Management方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写财务管理Financial Management代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写财务管理Financial Management相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|The Techniques Compared

Although the formats differ, it should be a relief to learn that all of the forecasting techniques considered in this chapter produce the same results. As long as the assumptions are the same and no arithmetic or accounting mistakes are made, all of the techniques will produce the same estimate of external funding required. Moreover, if your accounting skills are up to the task, it is possible to reconcile one format with another. Problems 10,11 , and 12 at the end of the chapter allow you to demonstrate this fact for yourself.
A second reassuring fact is that regardless of which forecasting technique is used, the resulting estimate of new financing needs is not biased by inflation. Consequently, there is no need to resort to elaborate inflation adjustments when making financial forecasts in an inflationary environment. This is not to say that the need for new financing is independent of the inflation rate. Indeed, as will become apparent in Chapter 4 , the financing needs of most companies rise with inflation. Rather, it means that direct application of the previously described forecasting techniques will correctly indicate the need for external financing even in the presence of inflation.

Mechanically, then, the three forecasting techniques are equivalent, and the choice of which one to use can depend on the purpose of the forecast. For most planning purposes and for credit analysis, I recommend pro forma statements because they present the information in a form suitable for additional financial analysis. For short-term forecasting and the management of cash, the cash budget is appropriate. A cash flow forecast lies somewhere between the other two. It presents a broader picture of company operations than a cash budget does and is easier to construct and more accessible to accounting novices than pro formas are, but it is also less informative than pro formas.

Regardless of which forecasting technique you use, keep in mind that-as mentioned in the opening paragraph to this chapter-financial forecasts are only the tip of the planning iceberg. Especially in large, multidivision corporations, effective planning usually involves multiple steps. First, headquarters executives and division managers hammer out a corporate strategy.

## 会计代写|财务管理代写Financial Management代考|Managing Growth

Growth and its management present special problems in financial planning, in part because many executives see growth as something to be maximized. They reason simply that, as growth increases, the firm’s market share and profits should rise as well. From a financial perspective, however, growth is not always a blessing. Rapid growth can put considerable strain on a company’s resources, and unless management is aware of this effect and takes active steps to control it, rapid growth can lead to bankruptcy. Companies can literally grow broke. It is a sad truth that rapid growth has driven almost as many companies into bankruptcy as slow growth has. It is doubly sad to realize that those companies that grew too fast met the market test by providing a product people wanted and failed only because they lacked the financial acumen to manage their growth properly.

At the other end of the spectrum, companies growing too slowly have a different but no less pressing set of financial concerns. As will become apparent, if these companies fail to appreciate the financial implications of slow growth, they will come under increasing pressure from restive shareholders, irate board members, and potential raiders. In either case, the financial management of growth is a topic worthy of close inspection.

We begin our look at the financial dimensions of growth by defining a company’s sustainable growth rate. This is the maximum rate at which company sales can increase without depleting financial resources. Then, we look at the options open to management when a company’s target growth rate exceeds its sustainable growth rate and, conversely, when growth falls below sustainable levels. An important conclusion will be that growth is not necessarily something to be maximized. In many companies, it may be necessary to limit growth to conserve financial strength. In others, the money used to finance unprofitable growth might better be returned to owners. The need to limit growth is a hard lesson for operating managers used to thinking that more is better. It is a critical one, however, because operating executives bear major responsibility for managing growth.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 会计代写|国际商贸代写International Business代考|European Court of Justice and preliminary rulings

According to Art. 267 (1) TFEU the ECJ shall have the legal right to give preliminary rulings concerning: (a) the interpretation of this Treaty; and (b) (…) the validity and interpretation of acts of the institutions of the Community (…).

Most of the major verdicts given by the European Court of Justice have been made with reference to Art. 267. Furthermore, most of the cases in this book result from preliminary rulings under Art. 267. As explained earlier, by giving a preliminary ruling the ECJ gives its interpretation of a Treaty Article i.e. what exactly does this Article mean in relation to a particular case? Does the Article have a direct effect or not? Art. 267 enables the European Court of Justice to add new law to already existing EU law. A preliminary ruling given by the European Court of Justice can therefore be regarded as a (fourth) source of EU law.
A national court is entitled to put questions concerning the validity and interpretation of EU law to the ECJ. Proceedings in national courts are suspended during the period of time required by the ECJ to answer their questions. Art. 267 therefore ensures a uniform interpretation of the Articles of the TFEU and uniformity in the application of EU law throughout the EU.

The ECJ does not apply the law in national proceedings. This is still the task of the national court of law. The national court of law will give a verdict in the light of the preliminary ruling given by the ECJ under Art. 267 TFEU. The ECJ does not rule on the conflict between two litigating parties.

There cannot be any doubt as to the legal status of agreements. Numerous laws and international treatics concern themselves with equally numerous agreements. It follows then, in the next section on reaching an agreement, that the content of such an agreement can be derived either from national law or an international Treaty such as the Convention on the International Sale of Goods, both of which look quite similar in this respect. There is no specific written law or treaty on negotiations during the period in which the ‘contracting parties to be’ conduct talks on, for instance, conditions of sale. This stage of negotiations is henceforth referred to as the preliminary stage, this being the stage prior to the final agreement between the two parties. This chapter will provide answers to questions on the rights and obligations of the negotiating parties during this preliminary stage.

An agreement between two parties is reached when one party accepts the offer of the other. An agreement therefore consists of an offer and the acceptance of that offer. Before an agreement is reached parties negotiate often for weeks, months or even years – over the content of their final agreement. In reaching an agreement, the parties have to go through several distinct procedures. In schedule $2.1, \mathrm{~A}$ and $\mathrm{B}$ are the negotiating parties, who reach an agreement in the end.
1 A draws up an offer and sends it to $B$.
2 The offer is delivered to $B$.
3 B takes time to think things over.
4 B comes to a decision and sends his acceptance to
5 B’s acceptance reaches A: at the very moment B’s acceptance reaches $A$ the agreement becomes final.
6 This moment is just after the moment when an agreement becomes final.
Schedule $2.1$ shows the sequence of offer, acceptance and conclusion of an agreement. A more detailed explanation, with examples, follows.

## 会计代写|国际商贸代写International Business代考|European Court of Justice and preliminary rulings

1 A 拟定报价并将其发送至乙.
2 报价送至乙.
3 B 需要时间思考问题。
4 B 做出决定并将其接受发送给
5 B 接受到达 A：就在 B 接受到达的那一刻一个该协议成为最终协议。
6 这个时刻是在协议成为最终的那一刻之后。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。