## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON045

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Can the Laws of Derived Demand Be Applied to Cross-Elasticities?

The Hicks-Marshall laws of derived demand are based on four technological or market conditions that determine the size of own-wage elasticities. Each of the four conditions influences the substitution or the scale effect, and as noted above, the relative strengths of these two effects are also what determine the sign of cross-elasticities. The laws that apply to own-wage elasticities cannot be applied directly to cross-elasticities because with cross-elasticities, the substitution effect (if there is one) and the scale effect work in opposite directions. The same underlying considerations, however, are basic to an analysis of cross-elasticities.

As we discuss these four considerations in the context of cross-elasticities, it will be helpful to have an example in mind. Let us return, then, to the question of what might happen to the demand for adult workers if the wages of teenage workers were to fall. As noted above, the answer depends on the relative strengths of the scale and substitution effects. What determines the strength of each?

The Scale Effect The most immediate effect of a fall in the wages of teenagers would be reduced production costs for those firms that employ them. Competition in the product market would ensure that lower costs are followed by price reductions, which should stimulate increases in both product demand and the level of output. Increased levels of output will tend to cause increases in employment of all kinds of workers, including adults. This chain of events obviously describes behavior underlying the scale effect, and we now investigate what conditions are likely to make for a strong (or weak) scale effect.
The initial cost (and price) reductions would be greater among those employers for whom teenage wages constituted a higher proportion of total costs. Other things equal, greater price reductions would result in greater increases in both product demand and overall employment. Thus, the share of total costs devoted to the productive factor whose price is changing will influence the size of the scale effect. The larger this share, other things equal, the greater the scale effect (and the more likely it is that gross complementarity will exist). This tendency is analogous to the fourth Hicks-Marshall law discussed earlier; the difference is that with cross-elasticities, the factor whose price is changing is not the same as the one for which employment changes are being analyzed.
The other condition that greatly influences the size of the scale effect is product demand elasticity. In the earlier case of teenage wage reductions, the greater the increase in product demand when firms reduce their prices, the greater the tendency for employment of all workers, including adults, to increase. More generally, the greater the price elasticity of product demand, other things equal, the greater the scale effect (and thus the greater the likelihood of gross complementarity). The effects of product demand elasticity are thus similar for both own-wage and cross-wage elasticities.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Estimates Relating to Cross-Elasticities

Estimating at least the sign of cross-wage labor demand elasticities is useful for answering many public-policy questions. For example, if we were to reduce the teenage minimum wage, how would this affect the demand for adult labor? If capital were to be subsidized, how would this affect the demand for labor? Or, to take a hotly debated issue in recent years (and one we will return to in chapter 10), when immigrant labor becomes cheaper and more available, what are the likely effects on the demand for various grades of native labor? These questions, of course, are really asking whether the pairs of inputs italicized in each sentence are gross complements or gross substitutes.

While the major policy interest is whether two inputs are gross complements or gross substitutes, obtaining credible estimates is challenging (because it is difficult to estimate scale effects). Therefore, most of the cross-wage empirical studies to date focus on whether two factors are substitutes or complements in production. These studies estimate the employment response for one category of labor to a wage or price change elsewhere, holding output constant (which in effect allows us to focus just on changes in the mix of factors used in production). The factors of production paired together for analysis in these studies are numerous, and the results are not always clear-cut; nevertheless, the findings taken as a whole offer at least a few generalizations: $\frac{10}{}$

1. Labor and energy are clearly substitutes in production, although their degree of substitutability is small. Labor and materials are probably substitutes in production, with the degree of substitutability again being small.
2. Skilled labor and unskilled labor are substitutes in production. 11
3. We are not certain whether either skilled or unskilled labor is a substitute for or a complement with capital in the production process. What does appear to be true is that skilled (or well-educated) labor is more likely to be complementary with capital than is unskilled labor-and that if they are both substitutes for capital, the degree of substitutability is smaller for skilled labor: $12$
4. The finding summarized in 3 above suggests that skilled labor is more likely than unskilled labor to be a gross complement with capital. This finding is important to our understanding of recent trends in the earnings of skilled and unskilled workers (see chapter 15 ), because the prices of computers and other high-tech capital goods have fallen dramatically in the past decade or so.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON308

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Applying the Laws of Derived Demand: Inferential Analysis

Because empirical estimates of demand elasticities that may be required for making particular decisions are often lacking, it is frequently necessary to guess what these elasticities are likely to be. In making these guesses, we can apply the laws of derived demand to predict at least relative magnitudes for various types of labor. Consider first the demand for unionized New York City garment workers. As we shall discuss in chapter 13 , because unions are complex organizations, it is not always possible to specify what their goals are. Nevertheless, it is clear that most unions value both wage and employment opportunities for their members. This observation leads to the simple prediction that, other things equal, the more elastic the demand for labor, the smaller the wage gain that a union will succeed in winning for its members. The reason for this prediction is that the more elastic the demand curve, the greater the percentage employment decline associated with any given percentage increase in wages. As a result, we can expect the following:

1. Unions would win larger wage gains for their members in markets with inelastic labor demand curves.
2. Unions would strive to take actions that reduce the wage elasticity of demand for their members’ services.
3. Unions might first seek to organize workers in markets in which labor demand curves are inelastic (because the potential gains to unionization are higher in these markets).

Because of foreign competition, the price elasticity of demand for the clothing produced by New York City garment workers is extremely high. Furthermore, employcrs can easily find other inputs to substitute for these workers-namely, lower-paid nonunion garment workers in the South or in other countries. These facts lead one to predict that the wage elasticity of demand for New York City unionized garment workers is very high. Consequently, union wage demands have historically been moderate. The union has also sought to reduce the elasticity of product demand by supporting policies that reduce foreign competition, and it has pushed for higher federal minimum wages to reduce employers’ incentives to move their plants to the South.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Cross-Wage Elasticity of Demand

Because firms may employ several categories of labor and capital, the demand for any one category can be affected by price changes in the others. For example, if the wages of carpenters rose, more people might build brick homes and the demand for masons might increase. An increase in carpenters’ wages might decrease the overall level of home building in the economy, however, which would decrease the demand for plumbers. Finally, changes in the price of capital could increase or decrease the demand for workers in all three trades.

The direction and magnitude of the above effects can be summarized by examining the elasticities of demand for inputs with respect to the prices of other inputs. The elasticity of demand for input $j$ with respect to the price of input $k$ is the percentage change in the demand for input $j$ induced by a 1 percent change in the price of input $k$. If the two inputs are both categories of labor, these cross-wage elasticities of demand are given by
$$\eta \mathrm{jk}=\% \Delta \mathrm{Ej} \% \Delta \mathrm{Wk} x \quad \text { (4.2) }$$
and
$$\eta \mathrm{kj}=\% \Delta \mathrm{Ek} \% \Delta \mathrm{Wj}$$
where, again, the Greek letter $\eta$ is used to represent the elasticity. If the cross-elasticities are positive (with an increase in the price of one “category” increasing the demand for the other), the two are said to be gross substitutes. If these cross-elasticities are negative (and an increase in the price of one “category” reduces the demand for the other), the two are said to be gross complements (refer back to Figure 3.3).

It is worth reiterating that whether two inputs are gross substitutes or gross complements depends on the relative sizes of the scale and substitution effects. To see this, suppose we assume that adults and teenagers are substitutes in production. A decrease in the teenage wage will thus have opposing effects on adult employment. On the one hand, there is a substitution effect: for a given level of output, employers will now have an incentive to substitute teens for adults in the production process and reduce adult employment. On the other hand, there is a scale effect: a lower teenage wage reduces costs and provides employers with an incentive to increase employment of all inputs, including adults.

.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|需求的跨工资弹性

$$\eta \mathrm{jk}=\% \Delta \mathrm{Ej} \% \Delta \mathrm{Wk} x \quad \text { (4.2) }$$

$$\eta \mathrm{kj}=\% \Delta \mathrm{Ek} \% \Delta \mathrm{Wj}$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECO433

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Hicks-Marshall Laws of Derived Demand

The factors that influence own-wage elasticity can be summarized by the HicksMarshall laws of derived demand-four laws named after two distinguished British economists, John Hicks and Alfred Marshall, who are closely associated with their development. ${ }^3$ These laws assert that, other things equal, the own-wage elasticity of demand for a category of labor is generally higher under the following conditions:

1. When the price elasticity of demand for the product being produced is higher.
2. When other factors of production can be more easily substituted for the category of labor.
3. When the supply of other factors of production is more highly elastic (that is, usage of other factors of production can be increased without substantially increasing their prices).
4. When the cost of employing the category of labor is a larger share of the total costs of production.

In seeking to explain why these laws generally hold, it is useful to act as if we could divide the process by which an increase in the wage rate affects the demand for labor into two steps. First, an increase in the wage rate increases the relative cost of the category of labor in question and induces employers to use less of it and more of other inputs (the substitution effect). Second, when the wage increase causes the marginal costs of production to rise, there are pressures to increase product prices and reduce output, causing a fall in employment (the scale effect). The four laws of derived demand each deal with substitution or scale effects.

Demand for the Final Product We noted above that wage increases cause production costs to rise and tend to result in product price increases. The greater the price elasticity of demand for the final product, the larger the percentage decline in output associated with a given percentage increase in price-and the greater the percentage decrease in output, the greater the percentage loss in employment (other things equal). Thus, the greater the elasticity of demand for the product, the greater the elasticity of demand for labor.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Estimates of Own-Wage Labor Demand Elasticities

We now turn to the results of studies that estimate own-wage demand elasticities for labor as a generic input (that is, labor undifferentiated by skill level). The estimates we discuss are based on studies that utilize wage, output, and employment data from firms or narrowly defined industries. Thus, the employment responses being estimated approximale those that would be expected to vecur in a firm that had to raise wages to remain competitive in the labor market. These estimates are suggestive of what might be a “typical” response but, of course, are not indicative of what would happen with any particular firm.

As our analysis has indicated, employers’ labor demand responses to a wage change can be broken down into two components: a scale effect and a substitution effect. These two effects can themselves be expressed as elasticities, and their sum is the own-wage labor demand elasticity. In Table 4.1, we display the results of estimates of (a) the shortrun scale effect, (b) the substitution effect, and (c) the overall elasticity of demand for

labor in the long run.
The scale effect (expressed as an elasticity) is defined as the percentage change in employment associated with a given percentage change in the wage, holding production technology constant; that is, it is the employment response that occurs without a substitution effect. By definition, the short-run labor demand elasticity includes only the scale effect, although we noted earlier that the scale effect is likely to be greater in the long run than it is in the short run (owing to greater possibilities for product market substitutions in the long run). Therefore, estimates of short-run labor demand elasticities will be synonymous with the short-run scale effect, which may approximate the long-run scale effect if product market substitutions are relatively swift. A study using data from British manufacturing plants estimated the short-run, own-wage labor demand elasticity to be $-0.53$ (see Table 4.1). The short-run labor demand curve for a typical firm or narrowly defined sector, therefore, would appear to be inelastic.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写劳动经济学代考|派生需求的希克斯-马歇尔定律

1. 当对所生产产品的需求的价格弹性较高时。当其他生产要素可以更容易地替代劳动范畴时。
2. 当其他生产要素的供给具有较强的弹性时(也就是说，其他生产要素的使用可以在不大幅度提高其价格的情况下增加)。
3. 当雇用这一类劳动力的成本占生产总成本的比例较大时。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON656

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Multiple Regression Analysis

The preceding discussion has assumed that the only variable influencing quit rates, other than random (unexplained) factors, is a firm’s wage rate. The discussion of positive economics in this chapter stresses, however, that the prediction of a negative relationship between wages and quit rates is made holding all other factors constant. As we will discuss in chapter 10, economic theory suggests that there are many factors besides wages that systematically influence quit rates. These include characteristics both of firms (e.g., employee benefits offered, working conditions, and firm size) and of their workers (e.g., age and level of training). If any of these other variables that we have omitted from our analysis tend to vary across firms systematically with the wage rates that the firms offer, the resulting estimated relationship between wage rates and quit rates will be incorrect. In such cases, we must take these other variables into account by using a model with more than one independent variable. We rely on economic theory to indicate which variables should be included in our statistical analysis and to suggest the direction of causation.

To illustrate this procedure, suppose for simplicity that the only variable affecting a firm’s quit rate besides its wage rate is the average age of its workforce. With other factors kept constant, older workers are less likely to quit their jobs for a number of reasons (as workers grow older, ties to friends, neighbors, and coworkers become stronger, and the psychological costs involved in changing jobs-which often requires a geographic move-grow larger). To capture the effects of both wage rates and age, we assume that a firm’s quit rate is given by
$$Q_1=\alpha^{\prime} 0+\alpha_1^{\prime} W_i^{\prime}+\alpha_2^{\prime} A_i+\epsilon_i(1 A .4)$$
$A_i$ is a variable representing the age of firm is workers. Although $A_i$ could be measured as the average age of the workforce, or as the percentage of the firm’s workers older than some age level, for expositional convenience we have defined it as a dichotomous variable. $A_i$ is equal to 1 if the average age of firm $i$ ‘s workforce is greater than 40 , and it is equal to zero otherwise. Clearly, theory suggests that $\alpha_2^{\prime}$ is negative, which means that whatever values of $\alpha_0^{\prime}, \alpha_1^{\prime}$, and $W_i$ pertain (that is, keeping all else constant), firms with workforces having an average age above 40 years should have lower quit rates than firms with workforces having an average age equal to or below age $40 .$

The parameters of equation (1A.4)-that is, the values of $\alpha_0^{\prime}, \alpha_1^{\prime}$, and $^{\prime}{ }_2-$ can be estimated using multiple regression analysis, a method that is analogous to the one described earlier. This method finds the values of the parameters that define the best straight-line relationship between the dependent variable and the set of independent variables. Each parameter tells us the effect on the dependent variable of a one-unit change in the corresponding independent variable, holding the other independent variables constant. Thus, the estimate of $\alpha_1^{\prime}$ tells us the estimated effect on the quit rate $(Q)$ of a one-unit change in the wage rate $(W)$, holding the age of a firm’s workforce $(A)$ constant.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Problem of Omitted Variables

If we use a univariate regression model in a situation calling for a multiple regression model-that is, if we leave out an important independent variable-our results may suffer from omitted variables bias. We illustrate this bias because it is an important pitfall in hypothesis testing, and because it illustrates the need to use economic theory to guide empirical testing.

To simplify our example, we assume that we know the true values of $\alpha_0^{\prime}, \alpha_1^{\prime}$, and $\alpha_2^{\prime}$ in equation (1A.4) and that there is no random error term in this model (each $\varepsilon_i$ is zero). Specifically, we assume that
$$Q_i=50-2.5 W_i-10 A_i(1 A .5)$$
Thus, at any level of wages, a firm’s quit rate will be 10 percentage points lower if the average age of its workforce exceeds 40 than it will be if the average age is less than or equal to $40 .$

Figure 1 A.2 graphically illustrates this assumed relationship between quit rates, wage rates, and workforce average age. For all firms that employ workers whose average age is less than or equal to $40, A_i$ equals zero and thus their quit rates are given by the line $Z_0$ $Z_0$. For all firms that employ workers whose average age is greater than $40, A_i$ equals 1 and thus their quit rates are given by the line $Z_1 Z_1$. The quit-rate schedule for the latter set of firms is 10 percentage points below the one for the former set. Both schedules indicate, however, that a $\$ 1$increase in a firm’s average hourly wage will reduce its annual quit rate by$2.5$percentage points (that is, both lines have the same slope). Now, suppose a researcher were to estimate the relationship between quit rates and wage rates, but ignored the fact that the average age of a firm’s workers also affects the quit rate. That is, suppose one were to omit a measure of age and estimate the following equation: $$Q_i=\alpha_0+\alpha_1 W_i+\epsilon_i(1 A .6)$$ Of crucial importance to us is how the estimated value of$\alpha_1$will correspond to the true slope of the quit/wage schedule, which we have assumed to be$-2.5$. ## 劳动经济学代考 ## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Multiple Regression Analysis 前面的讨论假设，除了随机 (无法解释的) 因素之外，影响离职率的唯一变量是公司的工资率。然而，本章对积 极经济学的讨论强调，工资与离职率之间负相关的预测是在所有其他因素不变的情况下做出的。正如我们将在第 10 章讨论的那样，经济理论表明，除了工资之外，还有许多因素会系统地影响戒烟率。这些包括公司的特征（例 如，提供的员工福利、工作条件和公司规模) 及其员工的特征 (例如，年龄和培训水平) 。如果我们在分析中忽 略的这些其他变量中的任何一个往往会随着公司提供的工资率在公司之间系统地变化，由此产生的工资率和离职 率之间的估计关系将是不正确的。在这种情况下，我们必须通过使用具有多个自变量的模型来考虑这些其他变 量。我们依靠经济理论来指出哪些变量应该包括在我们的统计分析中，并提出因果关系的方向。 为了说明这个过程，为了简单起见，除了工资率之外，影响公司离职率的唯一变量是其劳动力的平均年龄。在其 他因素保持不变的情况下，由于多种原因 (随着年龄的增长，与朋友、邻居和同事的联系变得更紧密，以及换工 作所涉及的心理成本一一这通常需要地理移动变大）。为了捕捉工资率和年龄的影响，我们假设公司的离职率由 下式给出 $$Q_1=\alpha^{\prime} 0+\alpha_1^{\prime} W_i^{\prime}+\alpha_2^{\prime} A_i+\epsilon_i(1 A .4)$$$A_i$是代表公司工人年齡的变量。虽然$A_i$可以用劳动力的平均年龄来衡量，或者用公司工人年龄超过某个年龄水平 的百分比来衡量，为了说明方便，我们将其定义为二分变量。$A_i$如果公司的平均年龄等于 1 的劳动力大于 40 ， 否则为零。显然，理论表明$\alpha_2^{\prime}$是负数，这意味着无论$\alpha_0^{\prime}, \alpha_1^{\prime}$，和$W_i$相关（即保持其他所有因素不变)，员工平 均年龄超过 40 岁的公司的离职率应该低于员工平均年龄等于或低于年齡的公司$40 .$等式 (1A.4) 的参数，即$\alpha_0^{\prime}, \alpha_1^{\prime}$，和${ }_2^{\prime}$一可以使用多元回归分析来估计，这是一种类似于前面描述的方法。此方法 查找定义因变量和自变量集之间的最佳直线关系的参数值。每个参数都告诉我们相应自变量变化一个单位对因变 量的影响，同时保持其他自变量不变。因此，估计$\alpha_1^{\prime}$告诉我们对戒烟率的估计影响$(Q)$工资率变化一个单位$(W)$， 持有公司劳动力的年龄$(A)$持续的。 ## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Problem of Omitted Variables 如果我们在需要多元回归模型的情况下使用单变量回归模型一一也就是说，如果我们遗漏了一个重要的自变量 一一我们的结果可能会受到遗漏变量偏差的影响。我们说明了这种偏差，因为它是假设检验中的一个重要缺陷， 并且因为它说明了使用经济理论来指导实证检验的必要性。 为了简化我们的示例，我们假设我们知道$\alpha_0^{\prime}, \alpha_1^{\prime}$，和$\alpha_2^{\prime}$在等式 (1A.4) 中，并且该模型中没有随机误差项（每 个$\varepsilon_i$为零) 。具体来说，我们假设 $$Q_i=50-2.5 W_i-10 A_i(1 A .5)$$ 因此，在任何工资水平上，如果员工平均年龄超过 40 岁，公司的离职率将比平均年龄小于或等于 40 岁时低 10 个百分点。 40 . 图 1 A.2 以图形方式说明了离职率、工资率和劳动力平均年龄之间的这种假设关系。对于所有雇用平均年龄小于或 等于$40, A_i$等于零，因此他们的戒烟率由线给出$Z_0 Z_0$. 对于所有雇用平均年龄大于$40, A_i$等于 1 ，因此他们的戒 烟率由线给出$Z_1 Z_1$. 后一组公司的退出率比前一组低 10 个百分点。然而，这两个时间表都表明，$\$1$ 公司平均小 时工资的增加将使其年离职率降低2.5个百分点（即两条线的斜率相同）。

$$Q_i=\alpha_0+\alpha_1 W_i+\epsilon_i(1 A .6)$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECO118

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Efficiency versus Equity

The social goal of a more equitable distribution of income is often of paramount importance to political decision-makers, and disputes can arise over whether equity or economic efficiency should be the prime consideration in setting policy. One source of dispute is rooted in the problem that there is not a unique set of transactions that are Pareto efficient. There are, in fact, a number of different sets of transactions that can satisfy our definition of economic efficiency, and questions can arise as to which set is the most equitable.

To understand the multiple sets of efficient transactions that are possible, we return to our example of the woman willing to create blueprints for $\$ 20$per hour. If Ace Engineering Services is willing to pay up to$\$22$ per hour for blueprints, and Sally is willing to work for $\$ 20$, their agreement on her employment at an hourly wage of, say,$\$21$ would be beneficial to both parties. However, the same can be said for an agreement on wages of either $\$ 20.25$or$\$21.75$ per hour. We can objectively judge any of these potential agreements as efficient because both parties are better off than they would be if they did not transact. But it is not clear which of the potential agreements are more equitable unless we define a subjective standard for “fairness.”

The second source of dispute over equity and efficiency is rooted in the problem that to achieve more equity, steps away from Pareto efficiency must often be taken. ${ }^5$ Minimum wage laws, for example, block transactions that parties might be willing to make at a lower wage; thus, some who would have accepted jobs at less than the legislated minimum are not offered any at all because their services are “priced out of the market.” Similarly, welfare programs have often been structured so that recipients who find paid work receive, in effect, a zero wage-a price distortion of major proportions, but one that is neither easily nor cheaply avoided (as we will see in chapter 6).

Normative economics tends to stress efficiency over equity considerations, not because it is more important but because it can be analyzed more scientifically. For a transaction to be mutually beneficial, all that is required is for each party to individually feel better off. Thus, studying voluntary transactions (that is, market behavior) is useful when taking economic efficiency into account. Equity considerations, however, always involve comparing the welfare lost by some against the utility gained by others-which, given the impossibility of measuring happiness, cannot be scientifically done. For policy decisions based on considerations of equity, society usually turns to guidance from the political system, not from markets.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Statistical Testing of Labor Market Hypotheses

This appendix provides a brief introduction to how labor economists test hypotheses. We will discuss how one might attempt to test the hypothesis presented in this chapter that other things equal, one should expect to observe that the higher the wage a firm pays, the lower the voluntary labor turnover among its employees will be. Put another way, if we define a firm’s quit rate as the proportion of its workers who voluntarily quit in a given time period (say, a year), we expect to observe that the higher a firm’s wages, the lower its quit rate will be, holding other factors affecting quit rates constant.

An obvious first step is to collect data on the quit rates experienced by a set of firms during a given year and match these data with the firms’ wage rates. This type of analysis is called univariate because we are analyzing the effects on quit rates of just one other variable (the wage rate). The data are called cross-sectional because they provide observations across behavioral units at a point in time. 1 Table 1 A.1 contains such information for a hypothetical set of 10 firms located in a single labor market in, say, 1993. For example, firm A is assumed to have paid an average hourly wage of $\$ 4$and to have experienced a quit rate of 40 percent in$1993 .$The data on wages and quit rates are presented graphically in Figure 1A.1. Each dot in this figure represents a quit-rate/hourly wage combination for one of the firms in Table 1A.1. Firm A, for example, is represented in the figure by point$A$, which shows a quit rate of 40 percent and an hourly wage of$\$4$, while point $B$ shows comparable data for firm B. From a visual inspection of all 10 data points, it appears from this figure that firms paying higher wages in our hypothetical sample do indeed have lower quit rates. Although the data points in Figure 1A.1 obviously do not lie on a single straight line, their pattern suggests that on average, there is a linear (straight-line) relationship between a firm’s quit rate and its wage rate.
Any straight line can be represented by the general equation
$$Y=a+b x \text { (1A.1) }$$
Variable $\uparrow$ is the dependent variable, and it is generally shown on the vertical axis of the graph depicting the line. Variable $X$ is the independent, or explanatory, variable, which is usually shown on the horizontal axis. ${ }^2$ The letters ” $a$ ” and ” $b$ ” are the parameters (the fixed coefficients) of the equation, with ” $a$ ” representing the intercept and ” $b$ ” the slope of the line. Put differently, ” $a$ ” is the value of $\gamma$ when the line intersects the vertical axis $(X=0)$.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Statistical Testing of Labor Market Hypotheses

$$Y=a+b x(1 \mathrm{~A} .1)$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|ECON673

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写劳动经济学Labor Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写劳动经济学Labor Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|The Models and Predictions of Positive Economics

Behavioral predictions in economics flow more or less directly from the two fundamental assumptions of scarcity and rationality. Workers must continually make choices, such as whether to look for other jobs, accept overtime, move to another area, or acquire more education. Employers must also make choices concerning, for example, the level of output and the mix of machines and labor to use in production. Economists usually assume that when making these choices, employees and employers are guided by their desires to maximize utility or profit, respectively. However, what is more important to the economic theory of behavior is not the particular goal of either employees or employers; rather, it is that economic actors weigh the costs and benefits of various alternative transactions in the context of achieving some goal or other.

One may object that these assumptions are unrealistic and that people are not nearly as calculating, as well informed about alternatives, or as amply endowed with choices as economists assume. Economists are likely to reply that if people are not calculating, are totally uninformed, or do not have any choices, then most predictions suggested by economic theory will not be supported by real-world evidence. They thus argue that the theory underlying positive economics should be judged on the basis of its predictions, not its assumptions.

The reason we need to make assumptions and create a relatively simple theory of behavior is that the actual workings of the labor market are almost inconceivably complex. Millions of workers and employers interact daily, all with their own sets of motivations, preferences, information, and perceptions of self-interest. What we need to discover are general principles that provide useful insights into the labor market. We hope to show in this text that a few forces are so basic to labor market behavior that they alone can predict or explain many of the outcomes and behaviors observed in the labor market.

Anytime we attempt to explain a complex set of behaviors and outcomes using a few fundamental influences, we have created a model. Models are not intended to capture every complexity of behavior; instead, they are created to strip away random and idiosyncratic factors so that the focus is on general principles. An analogy from the physical sciences may make the nature of models and their relationship to actual behavior clearer.

## 经济代写|劳动经济学代写Labor Economics代考|Normative Economics

Understanding normative economics begins with the realization that there are two kinds of economic transactions. One kind is entered into voluntarily because all parties to the transaction gain. If Sally is willing to create blueprints for $\$ 20$per hour, for example, and Ace Engineering Services is willing to pay someone up to$\$22$ per hour to do the job, both gain by agreeing to Sally’s appointment at an hourly wage between $\$ 20$and$\$22$; such a transaction is mutually beneficial. The role of the labor market is to facilitate these voluntary, mutually advantageous transactions. If the market is successful in facilitating all possible mutually beneficial transactions, it can be said to have produced a condition economists call Pareto (or “economic”) efficiency. ” (The word efficiency is used by economists in a very specialized sense to denote a condition in which all mutually beneficial transactions have been concluded. This definition of the word is more comprehensive than its normal connotation of cost minimization.) If Pareto efficiency were actually attained, no more transactions would be undertaken voluntarily because they would not be mutually advantageous.

The second kind of transaction is one in which one or more parties lose These transactions often involve the redistribution of income, from which some gain at the expense of others. Transactions that are explicitly redistributional, for example, are not entered into voluntarily unless motivated by charity (in which case the donors gain nonpecuniary satisfaction); otherwise, redistributional transactions are mandated by government through tax and expenditure policies. Thus, while markets facilitate voluntary transactions, the government’s job is often to make certain transactions mandatory.

Any normative statement-a statement about what ought to exist-is based on some underlying value. Government policies affecting the labor market are often based on the widely shared, but not universally agreed upon, value that society should try to make the distribution of income more equal. Welfare programs, minimum wage laws, and restrictions on immigration are examples of policies based on distributional considerations. Other labor market policies are intended either to change or to overrule the choices workers make in maximizing their utility. The underlying value in these cases is frequently that workers should not be allowed to place themselves or their families at risk of physical or financial harm. The wearing of such personal protective devices as hard hats and earplugs, for example, is seen as so meritorious in certain settings that it is required of workers even if they would choose otherwise.

Policies seeking to redistribute income or force the consumption of meritorious goods are often controversial because some workers will feel worse off when the policies are adopted. These transactions must be governmentally mandated because they will not be entered into voluntarily.

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。