## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARTH103

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Infrastructure as Deeply Implicated in Spatial Inequality and Violence

Infrastructure has always been a factor in the exertion of violence in the world, sometimes in ways that are highly visible, and at other times occulted and obscure. The European network of rail lines and terminals that signified the continent’s modernity also served the deportation, movement, and murder of Jewish people during the Shoah. Haussmann’s grand boulevards were as much about beauty and order as they were avenues for Second Empire military mobilization against an unruly populace. Chicago’s Dan Ryan Expressway facilitated the north-south flow of traffic through a growing city, while re-enforcing the barrier against Black people’s westward movement into White neighborhoods. French colonial officials planned cordons sanitaires in cities from Casablanca to Saigon in order to establish zones of separation between “native” and European populations (Figure 0.6). The extents and limits of piped water, electricity, transit, and other affordances are major factors in the production of socio-spatial inequalities. At the same time, as Fran Tonkiss reminds us, infrastructure produces forms of citizenship and belonging not dependent on official documents or membership in an electoral roll. “The pipe that runs below my building and connects to the sewer main,” she notes, “is a line of civic membership activated far more frequently than my intermittent trips to the voting booth.”31 Such physical networks bind people into polities in ways that are often unpredictable, unintended, even invisible.

In sum, the examination of infrastructure designs in an expanded field presents a range of possibilities for new ways of understanding our interactions with the built world. This is more than simply adding typologies and artifacts to the roster of infrastructure, though that alone would be a valuable outcome. Rather, it opens up a view of infrastructure as an ever-changing assemblage of socio-technical objects, networks, and processes mutually constituted and continuously iterated through spatial imaginaries and material flows. It also opens up considerations of affect, of what infrastructure makes possible in our emotional, spiritual, and material lives. The drone of the subway and the heat of the packed subway car after work. The eruv, comprising fishing line connected to lampposts and telephone poles and elevated train tracks, enclosing the Jewish faithful in a protected wall wherein they can perform tasks otherwise forbidden on Sabbath. The stunning views of mountains, valleys, and streams from the Tribhuvan Highway between Chitwan and Katmandu. The dark water of a canal in Xochimilco, gently rippling with the movement of a canoe paddle. The bridge where we last saw a friend, the street corner where we fell in love.

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Structure of the Volume

This book considers infrastructure across a wide variety of forms, locations, and temporalities. The authors take us to disparate world regions, explore themes across broad spans of time, examine questions of linkage and scale, investigate infrastructure as phenomenon and affect, and trace the interrelation of aesthetics, techology, and power. Some focus on singular infrastructural elements, others on whole systems or interrelated networks; together, they provide a rich and multiform account of how we build and connect the world. The chapters themselves are organized into eight sections. The first four sections emphasize broad thematic approaches, while the second four sections emphasize typological approaches. This is by no means meant to be a discrete division; indeed, each chapter in the thematic sections deals with specific types and examples of infrastructure, and each chapter in the typological section illuminates critical themes in infrastructure design. Moreover, chapters interrelate across the divisions into which they have been placed, some tied together by geography, others by time period, still others through a focus on political, economic, or cultural dimensions of infrastructure. In all cases, authors bring highly developed conceptual frameworks and thoroughly empirical studies to the table.

The first section investigates material forms, compositions, and installments of infrastructure. Braden Lee Scott’s chapter takes us to Imperial Rome, where successive rulers sought to legitimize their power through the quarrying, transport, and installation of Egyptian stone. Carmelina Martinez considers the work of eighteenth-century French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, who regarded the creation of infrastructure around salt production as an opportunity to propose ideal relations between architecture, technology, and nature. Robby Fivez and Monika Motylińska bring us to twentieth-century cement production in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a novel genealogical approach to trace the ruptures and continuities in infrastructure building between colonial and post-independence Nigeria, Tanzania, and the Republic of Congo. Finally, Stefano Corbo’s chapter presents an intriguing architectural inversion, where excavated, hidden, and concealed spaces comprise the “underworld” of infrastructure under late capitalism.

In the second section, authors consider infrastructure in terms of embodied subjects in formation. Hannah Ahblad opens a view onto how Pashtun women have adopted and used communication infrastructure in Afghanistan in order to construct gendered spaces for expression and exchange, particularly in the post-Soviet period. In the context of drought-stricken Northeast Brazil in the early twentieth century, Laura Belik traces the spatial containment of migrant families, which in turn facilitated their recruitment into a regime of coerced labor for infrastructure projects. And Reem Sardina, Sherif Elfiki, and Ahmed El Antably present a novel account of Cairene cemeteries as an infrastructure both for the transportation of souls to the beyond and the habitation of squatters in a city rapidly running out of space for the living.

Visions of the natural world and its relationship to infrastructure form the basis of chapters in section three. Marie Pirard examines the transformation of the Eau d’Heure Valley in Belgium, where for fifty years planners, architects, and engineers constructed a series of dams and reservoirs that resulted in the formation of a hybrid “machine in the garden” landscape. Margaret Vickery’s chapter provides a critical evaluation of contemporary Danish approaches to infrastructure design, where architects and engineers seek to incorporate such elements as wastewater treatment and power generation plants into spaces for recreation, education, and play. And Catherine Seavitt Nordenson traces the long durée of the expansion of infrastructure into the Amazon as a project of resource exploitation and territorial control, from early colonial mapping efforts to the rise of the environmental conservation movement in the 1970 .

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARCH1300

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Infrastructure in an Expanded Field

In order to tell new stories about the design of infrastructure over time, the authors in this volume consider infrastructure beyond its object state into an expanded field. After all, infrastructure unfolds in excess of itself, congeries of always-incomplete social relations, human desires, material resonances, and stories that simultaneously focus and amplify, compress and expand the world. The Silk Road, for example, never existed as one coherent artifact; instead, it comes to us as a compression of many stories that we have forged into a singular narrative. It was at once a collection of spatial and architectural forms that emerged, accumulated, and faded over time-routes, markers, caravanserai, fortifications, ports, custom houses, water wells-and at the same time a space of world-making across geography and culture (Figure 0.3). The nilometers of ancient Egypt not only enabled the practical exercise of recording the annual flood, they provided data for the calculation of hydrological cycles that undergirded the mysteries of priestly power. The U.S. Interstate is both a slab of asphalt with supremely engineered fault tolerances, and a space for projecting freedom, mobility, and American power. And while it ramifies spatially, it is never experienced in totality by any one person, but rather in fragments, ideated through countless maps and atlases. Every airport terminal is a more or less humdrum feature of long-distance travel, and at the same time a tightly wound nodal point in the networked shrinkage of the globe. But we do not know that network as a whole; we know the check-in counter, the security cordon, the departure gate. Wires and switches dumbly send us electricity, but also envelop us in the hypnotic spell of the technological sublime.

The present volume examines infrastructure within an expanded field. This expanded field includes not only the immediate artifacts of infrastructure – the dams, bridges, water pipes, fiber optic cablesbut also the materials of which they are composed, the processes that produce them, the labor that animates them, the human affects that they reflect and engender, the landscapes and ecologies that they transform, and the stories within which they are enmeshed. These stories are not only about the construction of structures and systems, but also about the desires behind these constructions, the forms of life that they make possible, and the path dependencies that organize their emergence into the world. Rather than view infrastructure as a taken-for-granted element of modernity, this volume approaches infrastructure through Bruno Latour’s assertion that modernity is itself a multiform narrative. Infrastructure, then, constitutes a historically contingent element in the construction and dissemination not of modernity, but of the story of modernity-that contradictory knot of dreams, aspirations, and values that shape how we narrate the world. ${ }^{18}$

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|New Vantages

Reading infrastructure in an expanded field brings to the fore many features of its design over time. If we perhaps push the boundaries of what counts as infrastructure a bit far at times, it is a small price to pay for the intellectual ground we gain. Not everything is infrastructure, of course; but few features of the contemporary world remain outside or untouched by the spaces of flows constituted through infrastructure. Thus, the authors in this volume take a broad and inclusive view of infrastructure as the entangled ensembles of nodes, networks, and processes that facilitate the movement of people, ideas, and things from one place to another. Such a framework, in turn, provides new avenues of approach, new vantages from which to recast the stories we tell about the design of infrastructure. I will review five of these vantages and their implications here.

Far from a uniform and straightforward expansion over time, infrastructure projects tend to be unleashed in nervous eruptions at key historical moments, often as exercises in war, nation-building, or imperial control. At other times they accrue slowly, even imperceptibly, as separate projects knitted together over time, like the Indian Ocean trade network of the thirteenth century. At other times infrastructure erodes or disappears, like so many Mayan temples and processional streets entwined by jungle, or the Late Dynastic Port of Thonis slowly eroding below the azure waters of the Mediterranean. Such contingent and uneven histories remove infrastructure from its overdetermined role as a herald of progress, rung on the ladder of development, or step in the march of improvement. Moreover, infrastructure from one era can be repurposed for another, as with the recent trend of converting decommissioned train lines into linear parks. Despite these temporal complexities, we tend to collapse our accounts of infrastructure into a suite of tropes and narrative conventions that recruit roads, bridges, utility networks, and communication lines into unilinear stories of progress (Figure 0.5). Such stories, in turn, become justification for further infrastructure building.

Infrastructure tends to obscure the forces of its own production as well as the materials that flow through it. Immense expenditures of capital and labor shape networked materialities and spaces of flows, even while those expenditures recede into the overdetermined symbolism of the forms themselves. If we are fortunate, infrastructure brings water and gas to our homes, but those substances have been dramatically transformed from their source origins, and our relationship to them is attenuated by distance and the black box of technology. ${ }^{26}$ Meanwhile, dams, docks, pipes, rail lines, and other artifacts seldom reveal their political and economic affordances. When we cross the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge to Kobe, we are mesmerized by its exquisite span, but we do not see the mass dampers that stabilize the bridge’s resonance frequencies against strong winds, or the political, environmental, and contracting controversies that have plagued the bridge since its inception. The beautifully designed Bangalore-Mysore cloverleaf interchange obscures the legislative appropriations, land acquisitions, construction contracts, and hard labor that made such a piece of kit possible. Moreover, these infrastructures become such routine features of life that they tend to disappear or sublimate into our unconscious, only to be revealed in moments of crisis, as when the Tangshan Earthquake of 1976 destroyed many of the streets needed for rescue access, or when the blackout of 2003 blanketed the Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada in darkness.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARC1720

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Beneath and Between

The term infrastructure is an ambiguous and drifting signifier. This ambiguity has led to several key challenges for scholars of the built environment. The first challenge has to do with the ambit of the word itself. Nineteenth-century French engineers coined the term to refer to the substrate of support for rail lines-the structure beneath the structure. ${ }^1$ The term spread through transatlantic and colonizing networks, particularly among civil engineers engaged in road building and water projects, as well as military officers concerned with defense works and territorial control. Gradually it came to refer not only to structures below, but also between-physical networks connecting one node or place to another in a system. Today, we regard infrastructure as both visible and invisible, below and between, material and immaterial. It is no longer just the packed gravel substrate under the train tracks, it is also the train tracks themselves, and it is the switches, signals, chronometers, sheds, rotundas, terminals, and operational standards that comprise the system of rail transit, and it is the bodies, social relations, and visions of the world remade by high velocity travel. ${ }^2$

Another challenge has to do with the application of the term. Even as the concept of infrastructure expanded to include more artifacts, it also came to be used retrospectively to account for structures built long before the advent of the term. Thus, the term is freighted with assumptions built into the modern Enlightenment project in which it was born-assumptions such as progress through technology and the superiority of scientific reason over other knowledge forms. Scholars have too often read these assumptions backward into accounts of infrastructure in ways that justify Eurocentric notions of civilization, development, and empire. The expansion of European and U.S. hegemony over the last five centuries has been embedded in and accompanied by self-justifying narratives that view power as the inevitable outcome of technological superiority. Even as this so-called modern world became fractured by successive world wars, faith in progress and the embrace of the “technological sublime” survived and spread globally. ${ }^3$ And while the term infrastructure has been applied retrospectively, it has also become a standard element in projections of the future. U.S. Presidential advisor and economist Walter Rostow’s “stages of growth” encapsulates this vision of a world “modernized” and “improved” through the adoption of Western technology and infrastructure ${ }^4$

Finally, researchers must contend with the reality that while the term refers to connecting affordances, those very affordances often become resonant places in their own right, thickened with significance and leavened over time through countless repeated uses. ${ }^5$ The oldest known bridge in the world at Argolis was constructed by a Bronze Age Mycenaean Greek community to span a stream and carry chariots along the highway connecting Tiryns and Epidauros. It remains in use today, its irregular corbel arch settled comfortably into the Peloponnesian landscape. The two cities that it connected and helped to grow, however, lay in deposition, long since abandoned. But the bridge stands as a beloved local site and tourist attraction. Similarly, the Galata Bridge (now in its fifth iteration, see Figure 0.1) facilitates the flow of people and vehicles across the Golden Horn, connecting Sultanahmet and Beyoğlu. But the bridge itself is a lively destination, a platform for strolling, fishing, and taking in the breeze off the Bosporus.

Despite these challenges, or perhaps because of them, the term has opened up felicitous ways of describing the designed and built world. While it may be overdoing it to declare an “infrastructure turn” in scholarship, infrastructure nevertheless presents a critically important field for investigation as a key affordance in the production of both space and mobility over time. ${ }^6 \mathrm{~A}$ focus on infrastructure allows us to attend to the details of complex socio-technical systems and built environments-the connectors, the interstitial networks, the nodes that amplify, compress, and switch the flows. And not just material objects, but the invisible pathways, lines of force, and radiant fields that they produce, and the varied relations that emerge through the interconnected web of locations, practices, and things. By centering infrastructure we open ourselves to new stories, new ways of looking at the world.

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Design Stories

The core purpose of this volume is to tell new stories about the design of infrastructure. And we tell these stories from an intellectual space animated but not confined by architectural history. What can the perspective of architectural history provide in the way of deeper understandings of infrastructure design? What might a sustained study of infrastructure contribute to architectural history, and how might architectural history provide us with new insights and ways of apprehending infrastructure? To answer these questions, we have to think through what we mean by architectural history as an intellectual project and design as a human endeavor.

In this volume, we take a broad view of design as a neurocognitive capacity shared by all humans. Engagement in design tasks activates particular neuropathways associated with ideation, trial and error learning, task set configuration, and visual-spatial information processing. ${ }^7$ Through design, we amplify our ability to connect our imagination with action in the world in order to transform that world to suit a desired outcome. In this sense, design is related but not reducible to “problem-solving,” a closed loop activity where the variables in a situation are known, as when we find a rock and use it to break open a nut. Rather, design is an open process characterized by an ability to identify and discern between changing variables, as when we hold the same rock and see sonething different in vur mind’s eye embedded within the it-the arrowhead, the axe blade, the adornment. In practice, it is a form of abductive reasoning based on iteration, prototyping, and movement between general and specific propositions. It is an inherently futuring cognitive affordance. Like language or perception, design may be more or less advanced from one individual to the next, more or less facilitated by neurophysiology, but every person has the capacity to design. ${ }^8$

Given that design is a fundamental human capacity, architecture, as the design of built form, is a practice broadly shared within and across cultures. In popular lexicon, architecture is often used to refer to unique, geospatially fixed buildings designed by professionally credentialed architects-the grand edifice, the monument, the iconographic structure. Likewise, definitions of architecture by architects tend to re-enforce their status as creative geniuses responsible for transcendent works of art. As Jay Pritzker famously declared, “architecture is intended to transcend the simple need for shelter and security by becoming an expression of artistry.” Such a definition implies that shelter and security are “simple needs,” rather than immensely complex and creative human endeavors, and that the development of human habitat is devoid of artistry unless it involves the work of an architect. While great monuments and edifices certainly count as expressions of architecture, architecture itself is not reducible to such thetic expression grounded in human social relations. These practices unfold along continuum from professional to untrained, fixed to mobile, unique to repetitive, integral to modular and permanent to momentary. Architecture emerges from and reflects constant negotiation among people over the production of space, the terms of exchange, the vectors of mobility, and the making of lived worlds. ${ }^{10}$ The task of architectural history is to account for these negotiations over time, and the artifacts, spatial forms, and social relations that they engender.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|CE321

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写环境设计Environmental Design方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写环境设计Environmental Design代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写环境设计Environmental Design相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|The Chicago alternative

What the program conjured up was a world of buildings complemented by parks, yards, gardens, trees, flowers, sunlight and air-a world without tenements crowding out the landscape. The program also provided a literature list with 16 titles, topped by Unwin’s Nothing Gained by Overcrowding!. The City Club offered to distribute the readings, which it characterized as “describing the progress of the garden city and garden suburb movement, especially in Great Britain and Germany.” ${ }^{29}$ The program also capped the number of residences in the subdivision designs at 1,280 units. This density was comparable to the number of houses found in a typical neighborhood of Chicago bungalows. It was as if the City Club reformers had taken to heart Henry Vivian’s insistence on the “individual home” as the focus on housing reform. George Hooker later declared that garden cities represented “the finest thing done on the face of the earth in respect to housing for the ordinary man.,” ${ }^{30}$

The City Club competition program was silent on the “land capitalization” question that had troubled its housing reformers from the start. Club members clearly aimed to promote models that could be easily replicated and, perhaps, even codified by public planning regulations and building codes. However, they did not suggest whether their earlier search for philanthropic support for model tenement designs would now extend to the more ambitious plans for an entire subdivision. This question of how land was held and developed is key to understanding the somewhat awkward and largely unsuccessful migration of European garden cities models into Chicago. It is notable that the only example of garden city planning idea in the United States that was cited in the competition program was Forest Hill Gardens, the development undertaken in Queens, New York with the philanthropic support of the Russell Sage Foundation. The European garden cities required landed estates, co-partnership arrangements, and support from the state. What emerges clearly from the competition entries is that by drawing on European models, the majority established a level of civic, cultural, park, recreation, and even commercial amenities that would not, and likely could not, be supported by private developers constructing a community limited to 1,280 residences on the edge of Chicago in the $1910 \mathrm{~s}$ and $1920 \mathrm{~s}$. This model only became more broadly relevant in the context of relatively limited, federally supported public housing and community development programs during World War I, the New Deal, and after World War II.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Daniel Bluestone

In 1892 , Anthony Schmitt, the wealthy president of Schneider \& Company, a candle manufacturer, developed the 55-unit Arizona apartment building, one of Chicago’s earliest apartments that incorporated a courtyard. Designed by Treat \& Foltz, the Arizona was notable for its 70 -foot by 70 -foot landscaped court, with its lawn, fountain, and carriage drive. The Chicago Tribune reported that “this court is to be arranged as a miniature park.” 38

It is not clear whether the idea for the Arizona’s unusual courtyard plan came from Anthony Schmitt or from his architects, Samuel Atwater Treat and Fritz Foltz. Schmitt was known as “an extensive traveler” and in 1891 , he spent months traveling in Europe seeing “all of the principal countries, cities and points of interest.” ${ }^{39}$ In 1891, Schmitt would likely have seen European monastic and collegiate ensembles, as well as tenements and apartments that provided residential quarters arrayed around landscaped courts. Such buildings nearly always included enclosed interior courtyards, as opposed to what became the common pattern in Chicago-a courtyard opening directly onto a public street. Closer to home, the Mecca apartment building constructed in 1891-1892, Chicago’s first apartment building with a court open to the street, might have inspired the Arizona design. As one of the largest Chicago apartment buildings of its time, the U-shaped, 96-unit Mecca, designed by Willoughby J. Edbrooke and Franklin Pierce Burnham, included a court that measured 66 feet by 152 feet, opening south towards 34th Street ${ }^{40}$ (Figure 2.3).
In the Mecca, the building’s two major wings each included an enclosed atrium with a skylight that introduced light from the roof all the way to the ground floor. Access to the apartments was provided along open galleries that entirely encircled the atriums. The Mecca’s introduction of both an external court and interior atriums energetically engaged the tenement reform concern for light and ventilation in multiple-family buildings. The apartments received light from exterior windows and from windows and door transoms overlooking the atriums. This novel design concentrated building tenants and visitors around the interior atriums and thus worked in a direction contrary to the Arizona and most subsequent courtyard apartments, which diffused density into separate entries. The Mecca accommodated a highly visible and gregarious massing of residents and visitors around the interior atriums; ${ }^{41}$ however, the Arizona, with its seven separate entries, provided for the diffusion of residents that became the norm (Figure 2.4).

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Daniel Bluestone

1892 年，蜡烛制造商施耐德公司的富有总裁安东尼施密特开发了拥有 55 个单元的亚利桑那公寓楼，这是芝加哥最早的带有庭院的公寓之一。由 Treat \& Foltz 设计，亚利桑那州以其 70 英尺乘 70 英尺的景观球场而闻名，拥有草坪、喷泉和马车车道。《芝加哥论坛报》报道说，“这个球场将被布置成一个微型公园。” 38

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|IS-253

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写环境设计Environmental Design方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写环境设计Environmental Design代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写环境设计Environmental Design相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|“Human, all too human, geography”

Granted, the Vidalian alternative that followed from Sauer’s critique was atypical for its time. Berkeley offered “a genre of geography available nowhere else in North America,” Geoffrey Martin has written, and determinism would not go quietly. ${ }^{29}$ Moreover, even if Sauer’s insistence on buildings as evidence of the culturing of landscape won adherents, until World War II there was little “urban geography,” by that name anyhow, to speak of. “It is not [a] specialization at all,” Marcel Aurousseau could write in 199.4, prefacing a synoptic article in the Geographical Review, a journal which Sauerians would dominate for the next generation or two. ${ }^{30}$ And to the extent that a discrete urban subfield did exist, it paid remarkably little attention to dwellings as anything more than backdrop. ${ }^{31}$

Still, “Sauerian urbanism” is not the paradox it may appear to be. In 1931, Sauer petitioned cultural geographers to carry out studies in the “anatomy and phylogeny of the town.” ${ }^{32}$ He never truly acted on this sentiment, but a subset of his advisees ended up pursuing research on urban and architectural topics, much of it collected in the in-house series University of California Publications in Geography, which launched in the 1920s. It is through this empirical work on regional housing vernaculars, rather than the more ex cathedra moments of the “Morphology,” that we can assess the reach and significance of Sauerian writing on cities, both as scholarship and as moral dissent. Through his many students-most of whom applied his morphological methods to the letter-Sauer informed immanent critiques of industrial modernity, and its architectures, that would achieve highest pitch at midcentury.

The students’ work amounts to a diffuse legacy, suggestive but notably equivocal in its commitment to ever sorting out how urban dwellings live and are lived in-and, again, how to characterize that copula with any theoretical precision. Two early studies by John Leighly, for instance, who joined the Berkeley faculty in the 1920s, assess the “form-qualities” of baroque Swedish urbanism and the towns of the Hanseatic League without seemingly ever going inside a house. Leighly inventories architectural “tradition and style” and maps certain dwellings’ “location and plan,” but there his analysis stops. ${ }^{33}$ Hallock Raup’s work on the initial German settlement of Anaheim, California, skirts architectural questions in favor of a series of thematic maps; what Anaheim’s landscape looks or feels like at ground level remains unexplored. ${ }^{34}$ Wilbur Zelinsky, who became a synthetic cultural geographer of some renown at Penn State, published in 1953 on “The Log Houses of Georgia” (Figure 1.1) and found the occupancy of those houses to be only “incidental to our purpose,” albeit “of some intrinsic interest.”35 It was theoretically possible to engage housing from within, seeking clues to circulation and use at the scale of the room, wrote Joseph E. Spencer, the University of California, Los Angeles’s resident Sauerian, but floor plans were merely the “occasional” province of sociologists, not of geographers. ${ }^{36}$ In this way, admitted Fred Kniffen, who would know, Sauerians could be distant, extramural, strikingly “façadist” in their approach to housing. ${ }^{37}$

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|THE CHICAGO ALTERNATIVE

Chicago’s meteoric nineteenth-century growth brought extraordinary human density and congestion to the land. A diverse range of buildings went up that impinged upon, or eliminated entirely, sunlight, air circulation, and the natural landscape. City builders undertook a series of initiatives to counter this tendency. Even as Chicago and other major cities grew larger and more dense, major urban parks, the “lungs of the city,” preserved and created open landscapes with trees, lawns, and vegetation. In individual neighborhoods, small parks and playgrounds and school yards kept land open that provided a counterpoint to the crowding on surrounding city blocks. On the blocks themselves, novel building forms and regulations tempered efforts to fill private lots with buildings and people from side to side and from street to alley. New buildings and new regulations aimed to both build density and seemingly do the opposite – to preserve and cultivate nature or, at least, landscaped evocations of nature within the bounds of building lots. Nowhere did these efforts seem more urgent than in the poorest and densest residential neighborhoods. In the late nineteenth century, housing reformers and public health officials mapped urban mortality and quickly realized that human density, crowded building lots, and poor sanitation correlated closely with increased levels of urban mortality. To mitigate these conditions, reformers advocated for more open and natural landscape, more light, and more sunshine within neighborhoods, but more importantly, within the bounds of residential lots. They began to rethink and reimagine landscape from within the context of their own cosmopolitan urbanity and density. They focused on the importance of dwelling not only in buildings but also in landscape.

Even as Chicago assumed the idyllic motto Urbs in Horto in 1837, it proceeded to grow at a rate that rivaled all other cities in the United States. In the course of half a century, Chicago developed from a remote frontier outpost to one of the most prominent cities in the world. By 1890 , booming population growth had made Chicago the second-largest city in the United States, only the third city in the nation to reach a population of one million residents. The density created as people piled into Chicago dramatically framed the issue of dwelling in landscape. When the City Homes Association surveyors and Hull House reformers looked closely at tenement house conditions, they actually counted trees and gardens in the tenement districts. They believed that reformers needed to grapple with issues beyond “mere tenement-house conditions and management” and address the pervasive lack of parks, playgrounds, “open air-spaces,” and “breathing spaces in the heart of the congested districts.” Chicago housing reformers confronted “large areas where crowded blocks are covered with frame and brick tenements … which were built for years with little regard to the privileges of light and air”2 (Figure 2.1).

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Course790

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写环境设计Environmental Design方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写环境设计Environmental Design代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写环境设计Environmental Design相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Sauer and the ambivalent life of landscape

The “Morphology” was not the first time Sauer had registered discontent with determinist orthodoxy. “At best,” Sauer had noted in an otherwise anodyne 1924 article on the methodology of field surveys, such causal schemes are “likely to throw only a half-light on the human scene.” ${ }^{\prime 8}$ Nor was Sauer alone in his unease about unidirectional “geographic explanation”: Michigan’s Mark Jefferson, Chicago’s Charles Colby and Harlan Barrows, and outsiders including the anti-Spencerian sociologist Lester Ward had been grasping for alternatives well before $1925 .{ }^9$ And although some scholars continue to insist that Sauer meant the “Morphology” as a one-time-only statement of methods and principles, clearing the air and inaugurating the long-term “hiatus” from theoretical debate he had always desired, his post-1925 pedagogy, correspondence, and empirical sorties do not square with this contention. ${ }^{10}$ Sauer continued to theorize, and his questions on culture, matter, and life remain unresolved.

Sauer never truly bore out his sense of housing’s centrality as index of and participant in human life. We are left only with traces. In his Outline for Field Work in Geography (1915), coauthored with Wellington D. Jones and essentially a checklist for researchers, buildings scarcely figure as objects of geographic interest. Ninth on the list of “Characteristics of the people,” lodged without further comment alongside “Physique, health, traits,” one finds “Buildings-architecture, materials used, furnishings, conditions in which kept.” “11 Sauer’s earliest regional surveys of the Midwest and Middle Border states, which he prosecuted before his move west of the Sierra Nevada, glimpse the built environment but just barely. In good Vidalian fashion, questions of “settlement and development” come last in the work’s order of exposition, admissible topics only once a layered picture of geology, soils, vegetation, and all the rest has been patiently built up as precondition. His Geography of the Upper Illinois Valley (1916) embeds 50 pages on the scarred landscapes of mining, manufacturing, and transport, including some memorable meditations on “relic” canals of the antebellum period, but dwellings, much less the acts of dwelling therein, escape from view. ${ }^{12}$ His Geography of the Ozark Highland of Missouri $(1915 / 1920)$, on the region he called home, also closes with some fragmentary inventory of buildings-the “wretched sheds” of the hill country, the “semitropical” porches appended to houses by the French settlers of St. Charles and Cape Girardeau-but Sauer expends his analytical energy elsewhere. ${ }^{13}$ In Geography of the Pennyroyal (1927), commissioned by the State of Kentucky, Sauer lists and depicts the region’s characteristic house forms, a subset of “Rural Cultural Patterns,” but his analysis remains at the level of ideal types, with none of the anthropological weave that would become his métier in studies of the Spanish Main.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Friedrich Ratzel’s energetics of urban America

“The Morphology of Landscape” is a work of synthesis, a digest and reinterpretation of Western geography’s entire intellectual history in which some traditions gain Sauer’s approval and some come in for withering rebuke. To make sense of its predicates for the study and design of urban built environments, one cannot but scour Sauer’s own sources for clues. In the event, the most suggestive forebear proves to be neither Vidal de la Blache, whose posthumous Principles of Human Geography had appeared in 1922 and greatly excited Sauer; nor Goethe, whose stylized studies of plant life had supplied the American with “morphology” as keyword and ethos. Instead, it is necessary to reconsider the urban writings of Friedrich Ratzel (b. 1844), by the fin-de-sièle an overpowering figure in the German academy and, unusually among Sauer’s pantheon, the one who is to this day routinely tarred as an arch-determinist. From the 1920s, Sauer had cultivated Berkeley’s geography department as a kind of “institute for European geographers,” most of them German, who would pass through seasonally to teach. ${ }^{19}$ Sauer was convinced that Ratzel’s reception in the Anglosphere had been off kilter: relying on Ellen Churchill Semple’s bowdlerized Influences of Geographic Environment on the Basis of Ratzel’s System of Anthropo-Geography (1911), a popular book in its day, American readers had been blinded to the second volume of his Anthropogeographie (1883), still untranslated today, in which environment “conditions” but simply does not “determine” behavior. ${ }^{20}$ (Ratzel had died in 1904.) Through Semple, and through the aggressive geopolitics advanced in Ratzel’s “Laws of the Spatial Growth of States” (1896), later embraced by National Socialism via the work of Karl Haushofer-states are organisms, organisms want to grow, restless territorial boundaries themselves push outwards, conquest of neighboring states is only natural-Ratzel’s resources for a humane cultural geography seemed meager if not outright dangerous. ${ }^{21}$ His reputation was also as someone antipathetic to cities: overseas colonization, where his politics eventually led, seemed logical primarily as a way of securing more agricultural land. ${ }^{22}$

Yet there is also an urbanist Ratzel to reckon with. When still young and a “vaguely liberal” journalist, he spent 1873 and 1874 riding the American railroad-a transcontinental system as of 1869-gazing out on urban scenes, stopping off to explore their crevices, and wondering about the pacing and spacing of the industrializing United States. ${ }^{23}$ His Sketches of Urban and Cultural Life in America (1876), untranslated into English until 1988, reveal a man ceaselessly fascinated by the physical dimensions of cities, which, as Sauer noted in one of his last publications, Ratzel deemed the “best and highest” expression of national character. ${ }^{24}$ These urban travelogues prove crucial to Ratzel’s own intellectual formation, and they are laden with clues to what Sauer’s unfulfilled urbanism, keyed to lively environments built, might have become.

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Sauer and the ambivalent life of landscape

“形态学”并不是绍尔第一次对决定论的正统观念表示不满。“充其量，”绍尔在 1924 年一篇关于实地调查方法论的文章中指出，这样的因果关系“可能只会对人类场景产生一半的影响”。′8对单向“地理解释”感到不安的不仅仅是绍尔：密歇根的马克杰斐逊、芝加哥的查尔斯科尔比和哈伦巴罗斯，以及包括反斯宾塞社会学家莱斯特沃德在内的局外人早就在寻找替代方案1925.9尽管一些学者继续坚持认为 Sauer 的意思是“形态学”是对方法和原则的一次性陈述，为他一直渴望的理论辩论扫清了空气并开启了长期的“中断”，但他的后- 1925 年的教学法、通信和实证研究并不符合这一论点。10绍尔继续理论化，他关于文化、物质和生活的问题仍未解决。

Sauer 从来没有真正证明他认为住房作为人类生活的指标和参与者的中心地位。我们只剩下痕迹。在他与 Wellington D. Jones 合着的《地理学野外工作大纲》（1915 年）中，基本上是研究人员的清单，建筑物几乎不被视为具有地理意义的对象。在“人的特征”列表中排名第九，在“体格、健康、特征”旁边没有进一步评论，人们发现“建筑物-建筑、使用的材料、家具、保存条件”。“11 Sauer 最早对中西部和中部边境各州进行的区域调查是他在移居内华达山脉以西之前进行的，这些调查只是瞥见了建筑环境，但几乎没有。在良好的维达利亚风格中，“定居和发展”的问题在作品的阐述顺序中排在最后，只有当地质、土壤、植被和所有其他方面的分层图景被耐心地建立起来作为前提条件时，才可以接受的主题。他的《上伊利诺伊河谷地理学》（1916 年）在采矿、制造和运输的伤痕累累的景观中嵌入了 50 页，其中包括对战前时期“遗迹”运河的一些令人难忘的沉思，但住宅，更不用说居住在其中的行为，逃离视线。12他的密苏里州欧扎克高地地理(1915/1920)，在他称之为家的地区，也以一些零碎的建筑物清单结束——山区的“可怜的棚屋”，圣查尔斯和开普吉拉多的法国定居者附在房屋上的“亚热带”门廊——但绍尔花费了他在别处的分析能量。13在肯塔基州委托的《Pennyroyal 地理》（1927 年）中，Sauer 列出并描绘了该地区的特色房屋形式，这是“农村文化模式”的一个子集，但他的分析仍然停留在理想类型的水平，没有任何人类学编织将成为他在西班牙主要研究中的专长。

## 建筑代写|环境设计代写Environmental Design代考|Friedrich Ratzel’s energetics of urban America

《景观形态学》是一部综合作品，是对西方地理学整个思想史的消化和重新诠释，其中一些传统得到了绍尔的认可，而另一些则受到了严厉的谴责。为了理解其对城市建筑环境的研究和设计的谓词，我们不得不从 Sauer 自己的资源中寻找线索。事实证明，最具启发性的前辈既不是维达尔·德拉布拉什，他的遗作《人文地理学原理》于 1922 年问世，令绍尔大为兴奋。歌德也没有，他对植物生命的程式化研究为美国人提供了“形态学”作为关键词和精神。相反，有必要重新考虑弗里德里希·拉策尔（Friedrich Ratzel，生于 1844 年）的城市著作，他是德国学院中一个压倒性的人物，而且在绍尔的万神殿中不寻常，时至今日，他经常被冠以大决定论者的身份。从 1920 年代开始，绍尔就将伯克利的地理系培养成一种“欧洲地理学家学院”，其中大多数是德国人，他们会季节性地通过这里教学。19Sauer 确信 Ratzel 在盎格鲁圈的接受度已经不平衡：依靠 Ellen Churchill Semple 在 Ratzel 的《人类地理学系统》（1911 年）基础上的地理环境影响，美国读者被蒙蔽了双眼到他的《人类地理》第二卷（1883 年），今天仍未翻译，环境“条件”，但根本不“决定”行为。20（Ratzel 于 1904 年去世。）通过 Semple，以及 Ratzel 的“国家空间增长法则”（1896 年）中所提出的侵略性地缘政治，后来通过 Karl Haushofer 的工作被国家社会主义所接受——国家是有机体，有机体想要为了发展，不安定的领土边界本身向外扩展，征服邻国是自然而然的——拉策尔的人文文化地理资源似乎微不足道，如果不是完全危险的话。21他的名声也被认为是一个对城市反感的人：他的政治最终导致了海外殖民化，这似乎主要是为了获得更多的农业用地。22

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|ARCH1110

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑设计Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑设计Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑设计Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Advantages and Objectives of Collage

This technique pursues two objectives:

1. Boosting creativity
2. Building self-confidence and self-belief.
Agility, attention and attraction to mysteries and unknowns are the requirements to receive new subjects. It also requires a risk taking and exploring attitudes and of course, abandoning rigid and inflexible rules so that one can take creative actions when encountering new and unknown situations and based on his or her reasoning choose the best approach. In other words, one can train his or her mind through the results which are themselves the product of thinking. Conveying the spirit of science in training and education exceeds the increase of knowledge. It means cleansing the learners’ souls from the diseases that might distance them from the truth and the spirit of truth seeking. The teacher’s objective must be training the learners’ intellectual power and vitalize the creativity power and independence of method in them (Motahari 1992: 54). In architecture training these two issues, creativity and independence in method, are considered as essential qualities required to be a successful architect. According to Amiral-Momenin Ali (a.s) in Nahjolbalaghe, there are two types of sciences: Heard Science, the science obtained from an outside source and Pleasant Science, the science derived from human nature, the science that is not taken from others and is the product of one’s creativity (ibid., p. 19).
3. Because of the flaws in architecture teaching system, and not the lack the talent, some architects are deprived of the pleasant science; the flaws that prevent them from fostering their talents. Therefore, undoubtedly, the main purpose of teaching all types of sciences, architecture in particular, should be to nurture the learners’ mind. The teachers must impeccably fulfill their responsibility for nurturing students’ minds and creativity and analysis power (ibid., p. 24). The purpose of making special images in collage is improving thinking abilities, boosting creativity and innovation. The images are the means to introduce tangible facts. There are various functional ways to achieve this objective but what matters is the possibility to convey the result. In this technique, visualizing a space without having some images of it is believed to be an impossibility, regardless of whether they are subjective and emotional or they are chosen beforehand. These photographs act as means of fostering the creativity, since the photographs used to make a collage are not final and unchangeable but subjective which have been emanated from designer’s nature and subconscious. Collage is the expression of an architect’s inner and unconscious thoughts which cannot be expressed through logical or conscious methods. It can be said that collage is the transference of the architects’ ideas from inside to outside.

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Tools and Materials and How to Use Them

1. Sclccted photographs by designcr with regard to the desired subject
2. One sheet of $\mathbf{A} 3$ polystyrene
3. Some A3 black or white pieces of cardboard (preferably black)
4. Paper and scissors
5. Some pins
6. Some glue.
First, fix one piece of A.3 black cardboard on an $\Lambda 3$ polystyrene, then choose the appropriate pho tographs regarding the subject and pin it on the working board, and then reevaluating the chosen photographs repeat the process. It is worthy of attention that after pinning each new part and evaluating its composition in comparison to previous photographs and, if need be, changing the direction or location so as to reach the best composition, the working board is placed at a $3-\mathrm{m}$ distance.

This tree-meter distance is emphasized because the purpose of making such photographs is not to reach an excellent combination of colors or contexture, but to reach ideal spaces concerning the design subject and this distance helps the designer to pay no attention to the details and focus on a whole different from a group of parts. For example, looking at the row of chairs or table at close range will reveal the fact, but when looked from a distance, it is associated with rhythm, recurrence or even a kind of flooring, and if the top picture is turned upside-down and looked again from that distance, it will be associated with fake ceiling.

After installing the photographs and making sure that we have the right combination, we glue the photographs on the desired place. Subsequently, we detach the black cardboard, which has now been turned into a colorful board, from polystyrene and get ready for the next collage.

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Advantages and Objectives of Collage

1. 提升创造力
2. 建立自信和自信。
敏捷、注意力和对神秘和未知事物的吸引力是接受新科目的要求。它还需要冒险和探索的态度，当然，放弃僵化和僵化的规则，以便在遇到新的和未知的情况时采取创造性的行动，并根据他或她的推理选择最佳方法。换句话说，一个人可以通过结果来训练他或她的思想，这些结果本身就是思考的产物。在培训和教育中传递科学精神超过了知识的增长。这意味着净化学习者的灵魂，使他们远离可能使他们远离真理和寻求真理的精神的疾病。教师的目标必须是训练学习者的智力，激发他们的创造力和方法的独立性（Motahari 1992：54）。在建筑培训中，创造力和方法的独立性这两个问题被认为是成为一名成功建筑师所必需的基本素质。根据 Nahjolbalaghe 中的 Amiral-Momenin Ali (as)，有两种类型的科学：Heard Science，从外部来源获得的科学和 Pleasant Science，从人性中衍生出来的科学，不从他人那里获取的科学个人创造力的产物（同上，第 19 页）。
3. 由于建筑教学体系的缺陷，而不是人才的缺乏，一些建筑师被剥夺了令人愉快的科学；阻碍他们发挥才能的缺陷。因此，毫无疑问，教授所有类型的科学，尤其是建筑学的主要目的应该是培养学习者的思想。教师必须无可挑剔地履行其培养学生思维、创造力和分析能力的责任（同上，第 24 页）。在拼贴中制作特殊图像的目的是提高思维能力，促进创造力和创新。图像是介绍有形事实的手段。有多种功能性方法可以实现这一目标，但重要的是传达结果的可能性。在这项技术中，在没有一些图像的情况下将空间可视化被认为是不可能的，无论它们是主观的和情绪化的，还是事先选择的。这些照片起到了培养创造力的作用，因为用于制作拼贴画的照片不是最终的和一成不变的，而是主观的，是设计师的天性和潜意识中散发出来的。拼贴是建筑师内心和无意识思想的表达，无法通过逻辑或有意识的方法表达。可以说，拼贴是建筑师的思想由内向外的传递。因为用于制作拼贴的照片不是最终的、不可改变的，而是主观的，是设计师的天性和潜意识所散发出来的。拼贴是建筑师内心和无意识思想的表达，无法通过逻辑或有意识的方法表达。可以说，拼贴是建筑师的思想由内向外的传递。因为用于制作拼贴的照片不是最终的、不可改变的，而是主观的，是设计师的天性和潜意识所散发出来的。拼贴是建筑师内心和无意识思想的表达，无法通过逻辑或有意识的方法表达。可以说，拼贴是建筑师的思想由内向外的传递。

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Tools and Materials and How to Use Them

1. 设计者针对所需主题的精选照片
2. 一张一个3聚苯乙烯
3. 一些A3黑色或白色纸板（最好是黑色）
4. 纸和剪刀
5. 一些别针
6. 一些胶水。
首先，将一张 A.3 黑色纸板固定在一个大号3聚苯乙烯，然后选择与主题相关的适当照片并将其固定在工作板上，然后重新评估所选照片重复该过程。值得注意的是，在固定每个新零件并与以前的照片进行比较评估其构图后，如果需要，可以改变方向或位置以达到最佳构图，然后将工作板放置在3−米距离。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|ARCH-111

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑设计Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑设计Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑设计Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Collage in Music

The concept of “collage” has crossed the boundaries of visual arts. The technologic advances in voice recording have enabled the avant-garde artists to cut and join audio pieces. This move started in the mid-twentieth century, and during the $1990 \mathrm{~s}$, “musical collage” became prevalent in electronic pope music. The collages made of recorded pieces by George Martin can be mentioned as an example.

Digital Collage, utilizing computer soft wares, integrates the incongruent visual elements to transform the visual outcomes of electronic media.

Novel collages are created through selecting and assembling the subject matters, narrations and selected images from other works. “Discordianism” whose author introduces it as a literary collage belongs to this category. A literary collage can be also used to classify various visions and views about a subject.

Decoupage is often defined as a work of hand and includes placing a picture on a subject to be used in interior design. Decoupage causes the picture to be completely exposed or makes the subject and the picture seem perfectly matched. The process of the decoupage begins with a picture pasted on a subject, then more copies of the picture are added, to the extent that the main setting is entirely covered and profound connotation of the picture is exposed. The final picture is often protected by a coat of varnish or other similar substances.

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Photomontage

Photomontage is a type of collage made of two or more photographs or some parts of photographs. Photomontage is a process through which some photographs are cut and glued to make a new composite image. Sometimes, the final image is photographed to create an interesting and unified product. Today, special computer soft wares are produced to assist the artists with photo editing. This technique is called “combination” by professional artists and “combination printing” for informal internet application. Victorian “combination printing” is another technique to integrate the photographs which contains the printing more than one negative on a single piece of printing paper (e.g. Rejlander 1857). “Front-projection and computer montage are named as other methods”. Sometimes a combination of these collage techniques are applied by artists. A series of black and white “photomontage” by Romare Bearden (1912-1988) can be mentioned as a perfect example. He started his work by combing paper, painting and photograph on a board measuring $11 \times 85$ inches, and then using a hand roller and some emulsion paint he fixed the photograph, and as the final stage, he photographed and enlarged them.

The traditional method of physical combination of some photographs and photographing them and its uses in lithographic printing, prevalent in the fifth century, came to an end with the advent of digital editing. Today, editors produce the photographs of “layout” magazines digitally.

With the advent of computer soft wares such as “Adobe Photoshop”, “Pixel Image Editor”, and “Gimp” this work has become much easier. These soft wares accelerate the workflow and also produce more accurate results. Furthermore, by providing the possibility to correct the mistakes via “undo” option they have enabled the user to perform more effectively. However, some artists still face the dilemma of choosing between the traditional art and these soft wares with all their astonishing image editing and combining capabilities. The current trend is to create the images that combine the painting, theater, illustration and graphics in an integrated photographic whole.

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Collage in Music

“拼贴”的概念已经跨越了视觉艺术的界限。录音技术的进步使前卫艺术家能够剪切和加入音频片段。这一举措始于 20 世纪中叶，在1990 s，“音乐拼贴”在电子流行音乐中盛行。乔治·马丁的录音片段拼贴画可以作为一个例子。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|ARCH201

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑设计Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑设计Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑设计Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|The Origins of This Method

Technique of collage was first used at the same time as paper was invented in China, around 200 BC. The use of collage, however, remained limited until the tenth century when the Japanese started applying papers glued together to write poems. The European started using collage in the thirteenth century (medieval). At this time, the gold leaves were used in the fifteenth and sixteenth Gothic cathedrals. Gems and other precious metals were used in images and religious symbols and also to hide arms.

In nineteenth century, this technique was used by hobbyists for memorabilia such as photo albums and books, e.g. the works by Christian Andersen and Carl Spitzweg.

In cubism, Pablo Picasso was the first to apply the collage technique in oil paintings. In 1912, he pasted a piece of oilcloth fabric with a design of a cane chair in his work called “still life with chair caning”. Surrealist artists continued using this technique. Cubomonia is a type of collage which is created by cutting an image into square parts and then assembling them randomly and unconsciously. “Inimage” is a special style of surrealist collage which was invented by “Rene Paseson”. But it might as well be called “decollage” in which some parts of an image are cut out so that another image can be illustrated. “Etrecissements” is the name that Richard Jonez used to refer to collages which Marcel Marien first using the same technique presented.

He also introduced the “collage exploration” which consists of the “decollage” elements and was made of layers of painting images whose corner’s were glued very loosely and then some parts of the upper layer were tom off to show the lower layer, so a new type of “collage” came into existence. Penelope Rosemont invented some surrealist collage techniques termed “Prehensiilouette” and “Landscapade”. “Collage” is often considered as an artistic form of the twentieth century, but in fact, it was never fully materialized. In surrealist forms like “Parallel Collage” a set of techniques are applied. “Collage Canvas” is another technique in which pieces of painted canvases are pasted on another canvas. In late 1970s, “John walker”, a British artist, created some prominent works applying this style. This technique was also used in mixed media works of the American artist, “Jane Nezalk”. “Lee krasner”‘ was a highly self-critic person who repeatedly destroyed her own paintings by cutting them into small pieces and then rearranging them to create a new art.

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Collage in Architecture

Even though Le Corbusier et al. have benefited from techniques similar to collage, “collage” as a theatrical concept came to attention only after “Collage City” by “Colin Rowe “and “Fred Koetter” in 1978. These authors did not support the visualized feeling of “collage” nor did they do anything to protect it from a conceptual collapse. But they applied the “collage” with its nonlinear orientation towards history and in the face of modernism uniformity as a tool to revitalize the designing process. It included the urban historical fabric and also helped the designers to find a way to improve their performance.

Colin Rowe is a member of an architectural group at Texas University with which he used this method in teaching. Another member of this group was Bernard Horsley, a Swiss architect, who continued his work to become a well-known professor in Zurich University. Although “collage” was more of a metaphor than actual act to Colin Rowe, Horsley actively used “collage” in some parts of his designing process. He had a close relationship with Robert Slotzki, an artist from New York, and always discussed the “collage” and breaking in his workshop.

In the mid-1940s, thanks to Lois Nolson’s 15 years of experience, “Wood collage”, one of the recent types of “collage”, started to develop. He created his statue-like “wood collages” using furniture pieces, boxes and wooden grids, railing, chair or ornamental margins.

In the catalog of the museum of modern arts, it has been written about Sky Cathedral by “Nevelson” that “it looks like a square airplane from the front, Sky Cathedral has the pictorial quality of a painting …” these pieces are seen as monolithic walls or rock pieces that sometimes can be looked at from different angles. Wood collages are much smaller and, like a painting, can be framed and hung. Wood plays the central role in these works.

## 建筑代写|建筑设计代写Architecture代考|Collage in Architecture

Colin Rowe 是德克萨斯大学建筑小组的成员，他在教学中使用了这种方法。这个小组的另一位成员是瑞士建筑师伯纳德霍斯利，他继续工作，成为苏黎世大学的知名教授。尽管对 Colin Rowe 而言，“拼贴”更多的是一种隐喻而非实际行动，但霍斯利在他的设计过程的某些部分中积极地使用了“拼贴”。他与来自纽约的艺术家罗伯特·斯洛茨基（Robert Slotzki）关系密切，总是在他的工作室里讨论“拼贴”和闯关。

1940 年代中期，得益于 Lois Nolson 15 年的经验，“木拼贴画”这一最新的“拼贴画”类型开始发展。他使用家具、盒子和木格、栏杆、椅子或装饰性边缘创造了他的雕像般的“木头拼贴画”。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。