## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARTH103

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Infrastructure as Deeply Implicated in Spatial Inequality and Violence

Infrastructure has always been a factor in the exertion of violence in the world, sometimes in ways that are highly visible, and at other times occulted and obscure. The European network of rail lines and terminals that signified the continent’s modernity also served the deportation, movement, and murder of Jewish people during the Shoah. Haussmann’s grand boulevards were as much about beauty and order as they were avenues for Second Empire military mobilization against an unruly populace. Chicago’s Dan Ryan Expressway facilitated the north-south flow of traffic through a growing city, while re-enforcing the barrier against Black people’s westward movement into White neighborhoods. French colonial officials planned cordons sanitaires in cities from Casablanca to Saigon in order to establish zones of separation between “native” and European populations (Figure 0.6). The extents and limits of piped water, electricity, transit, and other affordances are major factors in the production of socio-spatial inequalities. At the same time, as Fran Tonkiss reminds us, infrastructure produces forms of citizenship and belonging not dependent on official documents or membership in an electoral roll. “The pipe that runs below my building and connects to the sewer main,” she notes, “is a line of civic membership activated far more frequently than my intermittent trips to the voting booth.”31 Such physical networks bind people into polities in ways that are often unpredictable, unintended, even invisible.

In sum, the examination of infrastructure designs in an expanded field presents a range of possibilities for new ways of understanding our interactions with the built world. This is more than simply adding typologies and artifacts to the roster of infrastructure, though that alone would be a valuable outcome. Rather, it opens up a view of infrastructure as an ever-changing assemblage of socio-technical objects, networks, and processes mutually constituted and continuously iterated through spatial imaginaries and material flows. It also opens up considerations of affect, of what infrastructure makes possible in our emotional, spiritual, and material lives. The drone of the subway and the heat of the packed subway car after work. The eruv, comprising fishing line connected to lampposts and telephone poles and elevated train tracks, enclosing the Jewish faithful in a protected wall wherein they can perform tasks otherwise forbidden on Sabbath. The stunning views of mountains, valleys, and streams from the Tribhuvan Highway between Chitwan and Katmandu. The dark water of a canal in Xochimilco, gently rippling with the movement of a canoe paddle. The bridge where we last saw a friend, the street corner where we fell in love.

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Structure of the Volume

This book considers infrastructure across a wide variety of forms, locations, and temporalities. The authors take us to disparate world regions, explore themes across broad spans of time, examine questions of linkage and scale, investigate infrastructure as phenomenon and affect, and trace the interrelation of aesthetics, techology, and power. Some focus on singular infrastructural elements, others on whole systems or interrelated networks; together, they provide a rich and multiform account of how we build and connect the world. The chapters themselves are organized into eight sections. The first four sections emphasize broad thematic approaches, while the second four sections emphasize typological approaches. This is by no means meant to be a discrete division; indeed, each chapter in the thematic sections deals with specific types and examples of infrastructure, and each chapter in the typological section illuminates critical themes in infrastructure design. Moreover, chapters interrelate across the divisions into which they have been placed, some tied together by geography, others by time period, still others through a focus on political, economic, or cultural dimensions of infrastructure. In all cases, authors bring highly developed conceptual frameworks and thoroughly empirical studies to the table.

The first section investigates material forms, compositions, and installments of infrastructure. Braden Lee Scott’s chapter takes us to Imperial Rome, where successive rulers sought to legitimize their power through the quarrying, transport, and installation of Egyptian stone. Carmelina Martinez considers the work of eighteenth-century French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, who regarded the creation of infrastructure around salt production as an opportunity to propose ideal relations between architecture, technology, and nature. Robby Fivez and Monika Motylińska bring us to twentieth-century cement production in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a novel genealogical approach to trace the ruptures and continuities in infrastructure building between colonial and post-independence Nigeria, Tanzania, and the Republic of Congo. Finally, Stefano Corbo’s chapter presents an intriguing architectural inversion, where excavated, hidden, and concealed spaces comprise the “underworld” of infrastructure under late capitalism.

In the second section, authors consider infrastructure in terms of embodied subjects in formation. Hannah Ahblad opens a view onto how Pashtun women have adopted and used communication infrastructure in Afghanistan in order to construct gendered spaces for expression and exchange, particularly in the post-Soviet period. In the context of drought-stricken Northeast Brazil in the early twentieth century, Laura Belik traces the spatial containment of migrant families, which in turn facilitated their recruitment into a regime of coerced labor for infrastructure projects. And Reem Sardina, Sherif Elfiki, and Ahmed El Antably present a novel account of Cairene cemeteries as an infrastructure both for the transportation of souls to the beyond and the habitation of squatters in a city rapidly running out of space for the living.

Visions of the natural world and its relationship to infrastructure form the basis of chapters in section three. Marie Pirard examines the transformation of the Eau d’Heure Valley in Belgium, where for fifty years planners, architects, and engineers constructed a series of dams and reservoirs that resulted in the formation of a hybrid “machine in the garden” landscape. Margaret Vickery’s chapter provides a critical evaluation of contemporary Danish approaches to infrastructure design, where architects and engineers seek to incorporate such elements as wastewater treatment and power generation plants into spaces for recreation, education, and play. And Catherine Seavitt Nordenson traces the long durée of the expansion of infrastructure into the Amazon as a project of resource exploitation and territorial control, from early colonial mapping efforts to the rise of the environmental conservation movement in the 1970 .

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARCH1300

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Infrastructure in an Expanded Field

In order to tell new stories about the design of infrastructure over time, the authors in this volume consider infrastructure beyond its object state into an expanded field. After all, infrastructure unfolds in excess of itself, congeries of always-incomplete social relations, human desires, material resonances, and stories that simultaneously focus and amplify, compress and expand the world. The Silk Road, for example, never existed as one coherent artifact; instead, it comes to us as a compression of many stories that we have forged into a singular narrative. It was at once a collection of spatial and architectural forms that emerged, accumulated, and faded over time-routes, markers, caravanserai, fortifications, ports, custom houses, water wells-and at the same time a space of world-making across geography and culture (Figure 0.3). The nilometers of ancient Egypt not only enabled the practical exercise of recording the annual flood, they provided data for the calculation of hydrological cycles that undergirded the mysteries of priestly power. The U.S. Interstate is both a slab of asphalt with supremely engineered fault tolerances, and a space for projecting freedom, mobility, and American power. And while it ramifies spatially, it is never experienced in totality by any one person, but rather in fragments, ideated through countless maps and atlases. Every airport terminal is a more or less humdrum feature of long-distance travel, and at the same time a tightly wound nodal point in the networked shrinkage of the globe. But we do not know that network as a whole; we know the check-in counter, the security cordon, the departure gate. Wires and switches dumbly send us electricity, but also envelop us in the hypnotic spell of the technological sublime.

The present volume examines infrastructure within an expanded field. This expanded field includes not only the immediate artifacts of infrastructure – the dams, bridges, water pipes, fiber optic cablesbut also the materials of which they are composed, the processes that produce them, the labor that animates them, the human affects that they reflect and engender, the landscapes and ecologies that they transform, and the stories within which they are enmeshed. These stories are not only about the construction of structures and systems, but also about the desires behind these constructions, the forms of life that they make possible, and the path dependencies that organize their emergence into the world. Rather than view infrastructure as a taken-for-granted element of modernity, this volume approaches infrastructure through Bruno Latour’s assertion that modernity is itself a multiform narrative. Infrastructure, then, constitutes a historically contingent element in the construction and dissemination not of modernity, but of the story of modernity-that contradictory knot of dreams, aspirations, and values that shape how we narrate the world. ${ }^{18}$

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|New Vantages

Reading infrastructure in an expanded field brings to the fore many features of its design over time. If we perhaps push the boundaries of what counts as infrastructure a bit far at times, it is a small price to pay for the intellectual ground we gain. Not everything is infrastructure, of course; but few features of the contemporary world remain outside or untouched by the spaces of flows constituted through infrastructure. Thus, the authors in this volume take a broad and inclusive view of infrastructure as the entangled ensembles of nodes, networks, and processes that facilitate the movement of people, ideas, and things from one place to another. Such a framework, in turn, provides new avenues of approach, new vantages from which to recast the stories we tell about the design of infrastructure. I will review five of these vantages and their implications here.

Far from a uniform and straightforward expansion over time, infrastructure projects tend to be unleashed in nervous eruptions at key historical moments, often as exercises in war, nation-building, or imperial control. At other times they accrue slowly, even imperceptibly, as separate projects knitted together over time, like the Indian Ocean trade network of the thirteenth century. At other times infrastructure erodes or disappears, like so many Mayan temples and processional streets entwined by jungle, or the Late Dynastic Port of Thonis slowly eroding below the azure waters of the Mediterranean. Such contingent and uneven histories remove infrastructure from its overdetermined role as a herald of progress, rung on the ladder of development, or step in the march of improvement. Moreover, infrastructure from one era can be repurposed for another, as with the recent trend of converting decommissioned train lines into linear parks. Despite these temporal complexities, we tend to collapse our accounts of infrastructure into a suite of tropes and narrative conventions that recruit roads, bridges, utility networks, and communication lines into unilinear stories of progress (Figure 0.5). Such stories, in turn, become justification for further infrastructure building.

Infrastructure tends to obscure the forces of its own production as well as the materials that flow through it. Immense expenditures of capital and labor shape networked materialities and spaces of flows, even while those expenditures recede into the overdetermined symbolism of the forms themselves. If we are fortunate, infrastructure brings water and gas to our homes, but those substances have been dramatically transformed from their source origins, and our relationship to them is attenuated by distance and the black box of technology. ${ }^{26}$ Meanwhile, dams, docks, pipes, rail lines, and other artifacts seldom reveal their political and economic affordances. When we cross the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge to Kobe, we are mesmerized by its exquisite span, but we do not see the mass dampers that stabilize the bridge’s resonance frequencies against strong winds, or the political, environmental, and contracting controversies that have plagued the bridge since its inception. The beautifully designed Bangalore-Mysore cloverleaf interchange obscures the legislative appropriations, land acquisitions, construction contracts, and hard labor that made such a piece of kit possible. Moreover, these infrastructures become such routine features of life that they tend to disappear or sublimate into our unconscious, only to be revealed in moments of crisis, as when the Tangshan Earthquake of 1976 destroyed many of the streets needed for rescue access, or when the blackout of 2003 blanketed the Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada in darkness.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|ARC1720

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写建筑史Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Beneath and Between

The term infrastructure is an ambiguous and drifting signifier. This ambiguity has led to several key challenges for scholars of the built environment. The first challenge has to do with the ambit of the word itself. Nineteenth-century French engineers coined the term to refer to the substrate of support for rail lines-the structure beneath the structure. ${ }^1$ The term spread through transatlantic and colonizing networks, particularly among civil engineers engaged in road building and water projects, as well as military officers concerned with defense works and territorial control. Gradually it came to refer not only to structures below, but also between-physical networks connecting one node or place to another in a system. Today, we regard infrastructure as both visible and invisible, below and between, material and immaterial. It is no longer just the packed gravel substrate under the train tracks, it is also the train tracks themselves, and it is the switches, signals, chronometers, sheds, rotundas, terminals, and operational standards that comprise the system of rail transit, and it is the bodies, social relations, and visions of the world remade by high velocity travel. ${ }^2$

Another challenge has to do with the application of the term. Even as the concept of infrastructure expanded to include more artifacts, it also came to be used retrospectively to account for structures built long before the advent of the term. Thus, the term is freighted with assumptions built into the modern Enlightenment project in which it was born-assumptions such as progress through technology and the superiority of scientific reason over other knowledge forms. Scholars have too often read these assumptions backward into accounts of infrastructure in ways that justify Eurocentric notions of civilization, development, and empire. The expansion of European and U.S. hegemony over the last five centuries has been embedded in and accompanied by self-justifying narratives that view power as the inevitable outcome of technological superiority. Even as this so-called modern world became fractured by successive world wars, faith in progress and the embrace of the “technological sublime” survived and spread globally. ${ }^3$ And while the term infrastructure has been applied retrospectively, it has also become a standard element in projections of the future. U.S. Presidential advisor and economist Walter Rostow’s “stages of growth” encapsulates this vision of a world “modernized” and “improved” through the adoption of Western technology and infrastructure ${ }^4$

Finally, researchers must contend with the reality that while the term refers to connecting affordances, those very affordances often become resonant places in their own right, thickened with significance and leavened over time through countless repeated uses. ${ }^5$ The oldest known bridge in the world at Argolis was constructed by a Bronze Age Mycenaean Greek community to span a stream and carry chariots along the highway connecting Tiryns and Epidauros. It remains in use today, its irregular corbel arch settled comfortably into the Peloponnesian landscape. The two cities that it connected and helped to grow, however, lay in deposition, long since abandoned. But the bridge stands as a beloved local site and tourist attraction. Similarly, the Galata Bridge (now in its fifth iteration, see Figure 0.1) facilitates the flow of people and vehicles across the Golden Horn, connecting Sultanahmet and Beyoğlu. But the bridge itself is a lively destination, a platform for strolling, fishing, and taking in the breeze off the Bosporus.

Despite these challenges, or perhaps because of them, the term has opened up felicitous ways of describing the designed and built world. While it may be overdoing it to declare an “infrastructure turn” in scholarship, infrastructure nevertheless presents a critically important field for investigation as a key affordance in the production of both space and mobility over time. ${ }^6 \mathrm{~A}$ focus on infrastructure allows us to attend to the details of complex socio-technical systems and built environments-the connectors, the interstitial networks, the nodes that amplify, compress, and switch the flows. And not just material objects, but the invisible pathways, lines of force, and radiant fields that they produce, and the varied relations that emerge through the interconnected web of locations, practices, and things. By centering infrastructure we open ourselves to new stories, new ways of looking at the world.

## 建筑代写|建筑史代写Historical and Cultural Developments of Cities and their Architecture代考|Design Stories

The core purpose of this volume is to tell new stories about the design of infrastructure. And we tell these stories from an intellectual space animated but not confined by architectural history. What can the perspective of architectural history provide in the way of deeper understandings of infrastructure design? What might a sustained study of infrastructure contribute to architectural history, and how might architectural history provide us with new insights and ways of apprehending infrastructure? To answer these questions, we have to think through what we mean by architectural history as an intellectual project and design as a human endeavor.

In this volume, we take a broad view of design as a neurocognitive capacity shared by all humans. Engagement in design tasks activates particular neuropathways associated with ideation, trial and error learning, task set configuration, and visual-spatial information processing. ${ }^7$ Through design, we amplify our ability to connect our imagination with action in the world in order to transform that world to suit a desired outcome. In this sense, design is related but not reducible to “problem-solving,” a closed loop activity where the variables in a situation are known, as when we find a rock and use it to break open a nut. Rather, design is an open process characterized by an ability to identify and discern between changing variables, as when we hold the same rock and see sonething different in vur mind’s eye embedded within the it-the arrowhead, the axe blade, the adornment. In practice, it is a form of abductive reasoning based on iteration, prototyping, and movement between general and specific propositions. It is an inherently futuring cognitive affordance. Like language or perception, design may be more or less advanced from one individual to the next, more or less facilitated by neurophysiology, but every person has the capacity to design. ${ }^8$

Given that design is a fundamental human capacity, architecture, as the design of built form, is a practice broadly shared within and across cultures. In popular lexicon, architecture is often used to refer to unique, geospatially fixed buildings designed by professionally credentialed architects-the grand edifice, the monument, the iconographic structure. Likewise, definitions of architecture by architects tend to re-enforce their status as creative geniuses responsible for transcendent works of art. As Jay Pritzker famously declared, “architecture is intended to transcend the simple need for shelter and security by becoming an expression of artistry.” Such a definition implies that shelter and security are “simple needs,” rather than immensely complex and creative human endeavors, and that the development of human habitat is devoid of artistry unless it involves the work of an architect. While great monuments and edifices certainly count as expressions of architecture, architecture itself is not reducible to such thetic expression grounded in human social relations. These practices unfold along continuum from professional to untrained, fixed to mobile, unique to repetitive, integral to modular and permanent to momentary. Architecture emerges from and reflects constant negotiation among people over the production of space, the terms of exchange, the vectors of mobility, and the making of lived worlds. ${ }^{10}$ The task of architectural history is to account for these negotiations over time, and the artifacts, spatial forms, and social relations that they engender.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。